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Director's Message 

L,B *4%y 


9 2012 

Professor Ernst Mayr, arguably the most famous evolutionary biologist of the 
20 th century, served as MCZ's director from 1961 to 1970. For him, the MCZ 
"is not merely a repository of collections but a biological research institute." 

According to Mayr, the MCZ has two explicit 
tasks: "to study the diversity of living nature 
and its evolution — the mere accumulation 
of specimens and the mere description of 
new species is not our primary task" — and 
to instruct undergraduate and graduate 
students. This past year's activities and events 
show that we are doing our best to promote 
and realize Man's loftv vision and maintain 
MCZ's standing as the finest university-based 
natural history museum in the world. 

Perhaps the most important ongoing actiritv 
of any university-based museum is the 
hiring and retention of outstanding faculty- 
curators. Hence, I'm happy to announce 
that Dr. Hopi Hoeksua, MCZ's Curator of 
Mammalogy, has accepted Harvard's offer of 
a tenured professorship in die departments 
of Organismic and Evolutionarv Biology 
and Molecular and Cellular Biology, and 
appointment as Alexander Agassiz Professor 
of Zoology in the MCZ. This is a key 
"acquisition" for MCZ, and one that will help 
sustain our intellectual leadership in the 
field of comparative biology. 

Teaching continues to be one of our most 
valued and rewarding activities, and I am 
happy to showcase some of the impressive 
accomplishments of our undergraduate 
and graduate students within this report. 
Under the supervision of faculty-curators 
and with financial support from programs 
such as the Grants-in-Aid of Undergraduate 
Research, the MCZ continues to both train 
new generations of professional zoologists 
and educate future doctors, lawyers, poets, 
engineers, teachers and other leaders of 
tomorrow in the biology of organisms. 

This past vear saw significant improvements 
to our physical plant A new cryogenic lab 
was installed, which will house a state-of-the- 
art, liquid-nitrogen-based collection that will 
come online in November 2011. Build-out of 
the MCZ's new 50,000-square-foot collections 
facility in the Northwest Science Building 
began in spring 2011. Migration of specimens 
from their current, overcrowded space in the 
old MCZ will begin in early 2012. 

With the acquisition of several grants, MCZ 
is able to participate in both national and 
global efforts to digitize collection records, 
some of which extend back hundreds 
of years. The resulting online specimen 
databases provide unprecedented and 
immediate access to primary biodiversitv 
information by scientists, students, 
policymakers, conservationists and other 
data "consumers" anywhere and anytime. 

Finally, we were sorry to bid farewell to 
Elisabeth Werby, Executive Director of the 
Harvard Museum of Natural Historv, at the 
close of the 2009-2010 academic year. We 
surely will miss Liz, but we also will treasure 
the magnificent public museum she left 
behind. While the University develops plans 
to recruit her successor, David E. Ellis, 
former president of both Lafayette College 
and the Museum of Science, Boston, is 
serving as interim executive director. 

The success of the MCZ is only possible 
because of the earnest commitment and 
dedication of its faculty, researchers, staff 
and students. I commend everyone for 
their hard work and congratulate them for 
a job well done. 

James Hanken 


Cm>er photo credits: 
Top. left to right: Luke Mahler; Mad 
Dinca; courtew of Elaine \'o; Conuiln 
(itnlrl; Florence On 

Bottom, left to right: Lynn /oh num. Naomi 
Man m't Veld; Maik Rrnc-Jtaicski: Anna 
Clark; fon Sanders 

Opposite page: \ h]x k hrw >|>s di^k-sii 
il\iaenidae: Theclinae, from Australia b\ 
Catherine Wasd 

Annum. Report 2010-201 1 


Adam Clark 

Elaine Vo 



Investing in the Future 

As both a research and a teaching museum, the MCZ maintains an active 
involvement in, and support of, Harvard's education programs. 

Through courses, faculty mentoring and 
Grants-in-Aid of Undergraduate Research 
(GUR), the MCZ nurtures and advances the 
research interests of undergraduate students 
from the classroom to the lab and field. We 
are proud to highlight some of the research 
of recent undergraduates who have been 
supervised by MCZ faculty-curators. 

The achievements of Anh-Thu Elaine Vo, 

Class of 2008, provide an excellent example 
of the combined power of scientific curiosity 
and initiative, financial support and faculty 
mentorship. Vo's research, funded in part by 
a GUR in Winter 2007, measured mercury 
levels in the endangered Black-footed 
Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) , a wide-ranging 
aquatic predator in the Pacific region. Guided 
by Professor Scott Edwards, Vo examined 
120 years of feathers (1880-2002) held by 
MCZ and a second museum to correlate 
the amount of mercury accumulated in the 
feathers with increased levels of human- 
generated atmospheric pollution, especially 
since WWII and the more recent doubling of 
emissions due to Asian industrialization. 

Black-footed Albatross inflight and 
in the MCZ collections 

Vo's work is the first to confirm the rise of 
mercury levels in the Pacific Ocean and 
points to the need for further research on 
the reproductive effects of increased levels of 
mercury in endangered species such as the 
albatross. Vo's project garnered a Hoopes 

Museum of Comparative Zoology 

Prize in 2008 to reward excellence in her 
work as an undergraduate. Her findings were 
published in Proceedings of the National Academy 
of Sciences of the USA in April 201 1 . 

"Elaine is a very dedicated worker, and with 
her background in biochemistry and biology, 
she had a breadth of knowledge that is rare 
among undergraduates," explained Prof. 
Edwards. "Her research elegantly combines 
seabird ecology, ecotoxicology, stable isotopes 
and the value of museum specimens to reveal 
conditions in the world in which they lived." 

Vo is currently a graduate student at the 
University of California, Berkeley, where 
she is pursuing research at the interface 
of ecological immunology and avian host- 
parasite ecology. 

Adam Clark, Class of 201 1 , is 
especially interested in ants: 
the distribution of species 
across landscapes and how new 
species establish themselves into 
existing communities. For the 
last three years, his research has focused on the 
ant communities of the Boston Harbor Islands, 
including sampling and insect identification 
for the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory run 
by the Farrell lab. His work was supported 
by a GUR in Spring 2009 and his paper "Ant 
communities of the Boston Harbor Islands 
National Recreation Area" was recognized with 
a Hoopes Prize in 2011. His paper, "The effects 
of biogeography on ant diversity and activity 
on the Boston Harbor Islands, Massachusetts, 
U.S A," is in press at PLoS ONE. 

Clark investigated an invasive ant species, 
Paratrechina longicornis, in the Dominican 
Republic in 2011. Contrary to earlier local 
news reports of the danger and devastation 
this species would wreak, Clark found that, 
even though widespread, the colonies have 

remained relatively small, isolated and 
docile, and likely do not pose a physical 
threat to humans. 

"Adam is a natural entomologist who also has 
a deep commiunent to applying his research 
to issues of conservation and sustainable 
development," savs his advisor, Professor 
Brian Farrell. "He is an ideal ambassador for 
the causes of conservation and biodiversity 
research, both abroad and domestically." 

Adam Clark 

Recent graduate Joanna Larson, Class of 
2011, has diverse research interests in both 
amphibians and mammals that have led to 
fieldwork around the world, from Florida 
to Bulgaria to Africa. The MCZ supported 
Larson with two GUR giants. 

'Joanna began her relationship with MCZ 
as a freshman, when she enrolled in the 
herpetology course that I teach with Jonathan 
Losos," explained Professor James Hanken, 
her advisor. "The course included a spring- 
break trip to Costa Rica, and bv the end of that 
week, she was hooked on comparative zoology, 
natural historv and fieldwork. She went on to 
accomplish great tilings as an undergraduate." 

Larson's 2010 summer internship with the 
Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural 
History enabled her to conduct a taxonomic 
rerision of Petrodromus, African elephant 
shrews, and she is currently investigating 
the genetics of this genus with additional 
funding from the Smithsonian. During 
this internship, Larson also investigated 
hybridization between polar bears and 

brown bears, work that she now is 
preparing for publication. 

In December 2011, Larson 
will begin a research project, 
"Decoding Species Complexes 
of Amphibians and Mammals 
in the Mountains of Tanzania," 
on a Fulbright grant She will be 
studying small mammal and frog 
diversity in the mountains, teaching 
in \illage schools about local 
biodiversity and her research, and 
improving her fluency in Kiswahili, 
which she studied for two years at Harvard. 

Alexander Kim, Class of 2013, is so fascinated 
bv freshwater prawns that he seriously studied 
them even before his undergraduate career. 
According to his advisor, Professor Gonzalo 
Giribet, "Alex has a true passion for learning 
and is, by far, the most driven 
undergraduate I have ever met. 
He was conducting field research 
on freshwater crustaceans in high 
school and is already participating 
in advanced coursework." 

A member of the Giribet lab, Kim's 
fieldwork has been funded in part 
bv two GUR grants. In 2010, he 
traveled to Lake Corpus Christi, 
Texas, to investigate how a species 
of prawns that live in saltwater when 
young but spend their adult lives in 
freshwater seem to migrate between 
these emironments where a man- 
made dam should block their path. 

In 2011, Kim traveled to the 
Panama Canal area to investigate a 
novel cluster of Pacific/Caribbean 
sister species — closely related prawn 
species that were separated by land until 
the consuuction of the Canal. Because 
both of these species can tolerate both 
the saline and freshwater segments 
of the Canal, they have the potential 
for invasions far beyond their current 
habitats, with possible hemisphere-wide 
ecological repercussions. 

Joanna Larson 

-— — — - 

m H 




LI Ik 

1 ^tan 




Alexander Kim 

Annual Report 2010-201 1 

MCZ Faculty-Curators 

Andrew A. Biewener 

Charles P. Lyman Professor of Biology 
Director, Concord Field Station 

Prof. Biewener's research focuses on understanding the 
biomechanics, neuromuscular control and energetics of 
animal movement on land and in the air. To study how 
and why a wide variety of animals move dynamically in 
a natural setting, the Biewener lab employs treadmills, 
wind tunnels, high-speed video and methods of directly 
measuring the force and movement of the animal's body, 

limbs and wings. 

How musculoskeletal design varies across differing modes 
and conditions of movement— as well as across diverse 
species— is of particular interest in understanding the general principles that govern the design 
of the neuromuscular and skeletal systems of vertebrates. In the Biewener lab, limb and body 
dynamics of whole animal movement are analyzed in relation to neuromuscular, tendon and 
skeletal function. 

The research of the Biewener lab is designed to answer questions about animal movement, such as: 

• What features of the musculoskeletal system developed in response to the demands for 
powered flight versus those for economical movement over ground? 

• How do animals maneuver in their environment and stabilize in response to disturbances? 
How does size affect animal design and performance? 

How can biological systems inform robotics design? 

The Biewener lab at the Concord Field Station consists of three postdoctoral researchers, four 
graduate students, one research associate and three undergraduate researchers. 

Scott V. Edwards 

Professor of Biology 

Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology 

Curator of Ornithology 

Prof. Edwards' research focuses 
on the evolutionary biology of 
birds and relatives, using the 
guiding principles of population 
genetics and systematics to 
inform their natural history 
and behavior. Current projects 
utilize genomic technologies 
to examine genome evolution 
across the reptile-bird transition; 
phylogeography and speciation 
of Australian and North American birds; and the genomics of 
host-parasite co-evolution between house finches — a common 
North American songbird — and a recendy acquired bacterial 
pathogen called Mycoplasma. 

Brian D. Farrell 

Professor of Biology 
Curator of Entomology 

Prof. Farrell's research is 
broadly concerned with 
whether the diversity of 
species on Earth is a cause 
or consequence of the 
diverse roles different 
species play in ecosystems, 
particularly between insects 
and plants. 

The Farrell lab serves as a base 
for the Beede Tree of Life 
project, a collaborative and 
comprehensive phylogenetic 
study of this most diverse 
group of animals. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology 



Gonzalo Giribet 

Professor of Biology 

Curator of Invertebrate Zoology 

Prof. Giribet's primary 
research focuses on the 
evolution, systematics and 
biogeography of invertebrate 
animals. Current projects 
in the Giribet lab include 
multidisciplinarv studies for 
Assembling the Bivalve Tree 
of Life and for assessing deep 
molluscan phytogeny, as well 
as multiple projects involving 
research on arthropod 
svstematics and biogeography, sponges, sipunculans, 
platvhelminthes and onvchophorans. He is also interested in 
philosophical aspects of sequence data analysis, emphasizing 
homologv-related issues. 

James Hanken 

Professor of Biology 

Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology 

Curator of Herpetology 

MCZ Director 

Prof. Hanken utilizes laboratory- 
based analyses and field surveys 
to examine morphological 
evolution, developmental 
biology and svstematics of 
amphibians. Current areas of research include the evolution 
of craniofacial patterning; the developmental basis of life- 
history evolution; and systematics, taxonomy and evolution 
of neotropical and Asian salamanders and frogs. 

Prof. Hanken also serves on the Executive Committee of the 
Encyclopedia of Life ( 


- \ - 

Hopi E. Hoekstra 

Professor of Biology- 
Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology 
Curator of Mammalogy 

Prof. Hoekstra combines field and 
laboratory work to understand the 
evolution of mammalian diversity 
from morphology to behavior. Her 
research focuses on the genetic basis 
of adaptive variation — identifying 
both the ultimate causes and the 
proximate mechanisms responsible 
for traits that help organisms 
survive and reproduce in the wild. 

Research in the Hoekstra lab uses 
integrative approaches to understand 
how biological variation is generated 
and maintained in natural populations. 

Farish A. Jenkins, Jr. 

Professor of Biology 

Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology 

Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology 

As an anatomist, zoologist and vertebrate 
paleontologist, Prof. Jenkins is as much 
intrigued by living vertebrates as by 
their extinct relatives. Broadly interested 
in vertebrate evolution, he has never 
restricted his research to a particular 
taxon, and his collaborations have 
ranged from Mesozoic mammals to frogs. 
Another significant research focus has 
been functional anatomy: understanding 
the musculoskeletal mechanisms that 
animals use to move and breathe. 

He maintains active field research in vertebrate paleontology and, in 2006, 
was part of an expedition that discovered Tiktaalik roseae, the missing link 
between fish and land animals, in the Canadian Arctic. In 2009 he was given 
the Romer-Simpson Medal, the highest award of the Society of Vertebrate 
Paleontology, for sustained and outstanding scholarly excellence. 

Prof. Jenkins has led courses in vertebrate evolution for 40 years, explaining 
the anatomical and physiological transformations that transitioned fish 
to reptiles to birds to mammals— accompanied by detailed and colorful 
chalkboard illustrations— to cover 500 million years of vertebrate evolution in 
26 lectures. 

Prof. Jenkins was honored with a Harvard College Professorship in 201 1 
in recognition of his dedication to undergraduate teaching. In 2010, he 
received the Everett Mendelsohn Excellence in Mentoring Award for his 
efforts in supporting graduate students' education, professional and personal 
development and career plans. Prof. Jenkins was also recognized with 
The Joseph R. Levenson Memorial Teaching Prize in 2010. 

Annual Report 2010-201 1 


George V. Lauder 

Professor of Biology 

Henry Bryant Bigelow Professor of Ichthyology 

Curator of Ichthyology 

Prof. Lauder's research examines the structure, 
function and evolution of vertebrates, particularly 
fishes and amphibians. His current studies 
focus on the development of robotic models for 
understanding the functional and evolutionary 
diversity of fishes. Additional interests include 
biological fluid mechanics, theoretical approaches 
to the analysis of form and function in organisms, 
and the history and philosophy of morphology and 

Naomi E. Pierce 

Sidney A. and John Hessel 
Professor of Biology 
Curator of Entomology 

Prof. Pierce's research 
uses molecular and 
morphological data 
to reconstruct the 
evolutionary history of 
Lepidoptera. The goal 
of this research is to 
clarify the systematics 
and classification of 
these insects, and to 
investigate how host plant 
and ant associations have 
shaped their patterns of 

Jonathan B. Losos 

Monique and Philip Lehner 
Professor for the Study of 
Latin America 
Curator of Herpetology 

Prof. Losos' research focuses on 

the behavioral and evolutionary 

ecology of lizards, specifically 

how lizards interact with 

their environment and how 

lizard clades have diversified 

evolutionarily. His laboratory 

integrates approaches from 

systematics, ecology, behavior, 

genetics and functional 

morphology, taking both observational and experimental 

approaches in the field and in the laboratory. 

James J. McCarthy 

Professor of Biological Oceanography 
Alexander Agassiz Professor of 
Biological Oceanography 
Acting Curator of Malacology 

Prof. McCarthy's research focuses 
on factors that regulate the 
processes of primary production 
and nutrient supply in the ocean. 

Through controlled laboratory 
studies and field investigations, 
Prof. McCarthy and his group 
examine the effects of strong 
seasonal or interannual climate 
change on marine life and 
biogeochemical systems. 

Robert M. 

Professor of Biology 
Curator of Marine 

Prof. Woollacott's 

research focuses 

on aspects 

of marine 

invertebrate life 

history, such as 


of reproductive events and ecology and physiology of 

larvae. Topics of particular interest include larval dispersal 

and population connectivity, as well as human impacts on 

the distribution of marine organisms. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 


MCZ Emeriti 

Kenneth J. Boss 
Faculty-Cu rotor Emeiitus 
Professor of Biology, Emeritus 

Prof. Boss, former Curator 
"^^ of Malacology, has been 

\ I with Harvard for 40 years. 

^m I His research focus is the 

classification, systematics and 
evolution of mollusks, using data from shell morphology, 
anatomy and zoogeography to analyze the phylogenetic 
relationships within various groups of gasuopods 
and bivalves. He has also published on the history of 
malacology. Prof. Boss has contributed extensively to 
the Occasional Papers on Mollusks and formerly served 
as editor for Breviora and the Bulletin of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. 

Richard C. Lewontin 

Professor of Biology, Emeritus 
Alexander Agassiz Professor of 
Zoology, Emeritus 

An evolutionary geneticist, Prof. 

Lewontin pioneered the field of 

molecular population genetics 

bv merging molecular biology 

and evolutionary theory, as 

well as the philosophical and 

social implications of genedcs 

and evolutionary theory. Prof. 

Lewontin's current research 

involves computer simulation 

and evaluation of stadstical tests for selection. Among his 

manv books are The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change, 

Biology as Ideology: the Doctrine ofDXA; Human Diversity; and 

The Triple Helix: Gene Organism and Environment. He served 

as President of the Society for the Study of Evolution, 

the American Society of Naturalists and the Society for 

Molecular Biology and Evolution. 

A. W. "Fuzz" Crompton 
Faculty-Curator Emeritus 

Fisher Professor ofXatural Histon, 

Prof. Crompton, former 

Curator of Mammalogy, was 

the Director of the MCZ from 

1970 to 1982 and the former 

Director of the Peabody 

Museum of Natural History, 

Yale University, and the South 

African Museum, Capetown. His primary research interests 

are the origin and evolution of mammals, functional 

anatomy, neural control and evolution of feeding in recent 

and fossil vertebrates. Prof. Crompton is a fellow of the 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American 

Association for the Advancement of Science. He received 

two Guggenheim fellowships for his research on vertebrate 

paleontology and functional morphology. 

Herbert W. Levi 
Faculty-Curator Emeritus 
Alexander Agassiz Professor of 
Zoology, Emeritus 

A former Curator of 

Arachnology, Prof. Levi's 

research focuses on the 

taxonomy of New World orb 

wearing araneid spider genera. 

The author of Spiders and Their 

Kin, as well as numerous articles 

on various spider genera, his 

research has made possible 

identification of 1,500 species in 

66 genera in the Americas. Prof. Leri served as president of 

the International Societv of Arachnology and, in 2007, won 

the ISA's Eugene Simon Award for lifetime achievement for 

his immense influence on spider research. 

Edward O. Wilson 

Honorary Curator in Entomology 
Pellegiino University Professor, Emeritus 

Prof. Wilson is considered the founder of sociobiology and evolutionarv 
psvchology and has developed the basis of modern biodiversity conservation. 
He has received many of die world's leading prizes in recognition of his 
research and environmental actirism. He was awarded two Pulitzer Prizes for 
his books The Ants (1990, with Bert Holldobler) and On Human Nature (1978). 
In 2007, Prof. Wilson received the Technology, Entertainment, Design (TED) 
Prize, where he articulated the concept of the Encyclopedia of Life — 
a contemporary, dynamic Web page for every named species. 

Annual Report 2010-201 1 


Courses in 2010-201 1 Led by 
MCZ Faculty-Curators 

OEB 155r: Biology of bisects 

Freshman Seminar 31v: The Beasts of 
Antiquity and Their Natural History 
(offered Fall 2011) 

Organismic and Evolutionary 

OEB 10: Foundations of Biological Diversity 
(undergraduate ) 

Brian D. Farrell (and N. Michele Holbrook) 
An integrated approach to the diversity of 
life, emphasizing how chemical, physical, 
genetic, ecological and geologic processes 
contribute to the origin and maintenance of 
biological diversity. 

OEB 51: Biology and Evolution of 
Invertebrate Animals (undergraduate) 

Gonzalo Giribet (and Cassandra G. Extavour) 
Introduction to invertebrate diversity, with 
special emphasis on the broad diversity of 
animal forms, their adaptations to different 
ecosystems and how these phenomena shape 
animal evolution. 

OEB 53: Evolutionary Biology 
(undergraduate ) 

Hopi E. Hoekstra (and Andrew J. Berry) 
Micro- and macro-evolution, ranging from 
population genetics through molecular evolution 
to the grand patterns of the fossil record. 

OEB 57: Animal Behavior (undergraduate) 

Naomi E. Pierce (and Bence P. Olveczky) 
A review of the behavior of animals under 
natural conditions, with emphasis on both 
mechanistic and evolutionary approaches. 

OEB 121a: Research in Comparative 
Biomechanics (undergraduate and graduate) 

Andrew A. Biewener, George V. Lauder 
(and Daniel E. Lieberman, Stacey A. Combes) 
Introduction to experimental techniques 
used to investigate the structure and 
physiology of vertebrates, where each 
instructor offers research projects that are 
undertaken in their laboratory. 

OEB 121b: Research in Comparative 
Biomechanics (undergraduate and graduate ) 

Andrew A. Biewener, George V. Lauder 
(and Daniel E. Lieberman, Stacey A. Combes) 
Optional extension of initial project 
undertaken in OEB 121a into a thesis 
research project. 

OEB 125: Molecular Ecology and Evolution 
(undergraduate and graduate ) 

Scott V. Edwards 

A survey of theory and applications of DNA 
technologies to the study of evolutionary, 
ecological and behavioral processes in 
natural populations. 

OEB 139: Evolution of the Vertebrates 
(undergraduate and graduate) 

Farish A. Jenkins, Jr. 

Origination and evolution of the major 
groups of vertebrates, with emphasis 
on the anatomical and physiological 
transformations that occurred during 
the transitions to diverse lineages offish, 
amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. 

OEB 155r: Biology of Insects 
(undergraduate and graduate) 

Naomi E. Pierce (and Michael R. Canfield) 
Introduction to the major groups of insects — 
life history, morphology, physiology and 
ecology — through a combination of lecture, 
lab and field exercises. 

OEB 157: Global Change Biology 
(undergraduate and graduate) 

James J. McCarthy (and Paul R. Moorcroft) 
Examines natural and anthropogenic 
changes in the earth system and their 
impact on the structure and functioning of 
terrestrial and oceanic systems. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 

^—^^SPWHjwy *s^^" 


OEB 181: Systematics (undergraduate 
and graduate ) 

Gonzalo Giribet 

Theory and practice of svstematics, 
emphasizing issues associated with 
homology statements and alignments, 
methods of tree construction and 
hypothesis evaluation. 

OEB 231: Adaptation (graduate) 

Hopi E. Hoekstra 

This discussion-based course covers the 
latest advances in the study of adaptation, 
with a focus on controversial issues and 
integrative approaches. 

OEB 233: Evolution of the Niche (graduate) 

Jonathan Losos 

Evolutionary diversification relates directlv 

to how ecological niches change through 


OEB 234: Topics in Marine Biology 

Robert M. Woollacott 

Human impacts on marine life and 

ecosystems of the sea. 

OEB 255: Nature and Regulation of Marine 
Ecosystems (graduate) 
James J. McCarthy 

A presentation of topics that are of current 
interest in marine ecosystems. Emphasis on 
identification and quantification of biological 
and emironmental factors important in the 
regulation of community strucUire. 

Graduate Courses of 
Reading and Research 

OEB 307: Biomechanics, Physiology and 
Musculoskeletal Biology 

Andrew A. Biewener 

OEB 310: Metazoan Systematics 

Gonzalo Giribet 

OEB 320: Biomechanics and Evolution of 

George V. Lauder 

OEB 323: Advanced Vertebrate Anatomy 

Farish A. Jenkins, Jr. 

OEB 325: Marine Biology 
Robert M. Woollacott 

OEB 334: Behavioral Ecology 

Naomi E. Pierce 

OEB 341: Coevolution 

Brian D. Farrell 

OEB 234: Topics in Marine Biologs 

OEB 345: Biological Oceanography 
James J. McCarthy 

OEB 355: Evolutionary Developmental 

James Hanken 

OEB 362: Research in Molecular Evolution 

Scott V. Edwards 

OEB 367: Evolutionary and Ecological 

Jonathan Losos 

OEB 370: Mammalian Evolutionary 

Hopi E. Hoekstra 

Life Sciences 

LIFESCI 2: Evolutionary 
Human Physiology and Anatomy 
(undergraduate ) 

George V. Lander (and Peter T. Ellison, 
Daniel E. Lieberman) 
Explores human anatomy and 
physiology from an integrated 
framework, combining functional, 
comparative and evolutionary 
perspectives on how organisms work. 

Annual Report 2010-201 1 



OEB 155r: Biology of Insects 

OEB 51: Biology and Evolution of 
Invertebrate Animals 

Human Evolutionary Biology 

HEB 1210: Research in Comparative 
Biomechanics (undergraduate and graduate ) 

Andrew A. Biewener, George V. Lauder (and 
Stacey A. Combes, Daniel E. Lierberman) 
Introduces students to experimental 
techniques used to investigate the structure 
and physiology of animals. 


Environmental Science 
and Public Policy 

ESPP 90f: Global Change and Human 
Health (undergraduate) 

James J. McCarthy (and Paul R. Epstein) 
Explores hypothesized linkages between 
changes in ecosystems, climate and the 
epidemiology of certain infectious diseases 
resulting from increasing human population 
and our consumption of natural resources. 

ESPP 90q: Conservation and Evolution 
(undergraduate ) 

Jonathan Losos 

Examines the extent to which conservation 
and evolutionary biology need to be 
integrated to preserve the world's 
biological diversity. 

General Education 

Science of Living Systems 22: 
Human Influence on Life in the Sea 
(undergraduate ) 

James J. McCarthy, Robert M. Woollacott 
Over-harvested fish stocks, pollution and 
anthropogenic climate change affect 
the stability and productivity of marine 
ecosystems. This course asks what we need 
to know about the causes and effects of 
anthropogenic change to best protect 
marine ecosystems and ensure sustainable 
harvests from the sea. 

Harvard Extension School and 
Harvard Summer School 

BIOS E-225: Human Impacts on 
Marine Communities (graduate) 

Robert M. Woollacott 
How anthropogenic-driven events are 
impacting the structure and function of 
marine communities. 

BIOS S-74: Marine Life and Ecosystems 
of the Sea 

Robert M. Woollacott 

The life history and adaptations of marine 
life and the ecosystems of the sea, with 
emphasis on understanding the fragility 
and resilience of marine systems in the face 
of anthropogenically driven perturbations. 

BIOL S-l 13: Study Abroad at Oxford: 
Darwin and Contemporary Evolutionary 

Naomi E. Pierce (and Andrew Berry) 
The history of evolutionary biology in the 
post-Darwinian world, following strands of 
thought either introduced or ignored by 
Darwin in On the Origin of Species through to 
the present. 

OEB 155r: Biology of bisects 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 


New Facilities and Technologies 
Enhance Preservation and Access 

There are developments all around the MCZ to ensure the preservation of 
specimens and enhance their access for research, on site and online. 

The Northwest Building 

The Northwest Building's below-ground 
floors are being renovated for state-of-the-art 
laboratories, special preparations areas, a 
classroom and climate-conuolled collections 
storage rooms for the MCZ. The building 
will become the new home for all or part of 
eight MCZ dry collections, greatly improving 
storage conditions for these specimens 
and the preparation and lab areas for their 
researchers and students. 

The Phase One build-out of the building's 
B2 level — with the prep labs, receiving 
space and the Mammalogy management 
and collections space — was completed in 
summer 2011. 'The collection areas and new 
prep labs are leading-edge facilities, and the 
collections staff — even those with specimens 
not moving — are eager to start using the 
shared facilities," said Linda Ford, Director of 
Collections Operations. 

Mark Renczkowski 

Curatorial staff have been readying the 
Mammalogy collections since early 2010 and 
these collections are scheduled to move to 
the Northwest Building in early 2012. Phase 
Two, B3 South, will be the management 
and collection areas for Ornithology and 
the management areas for Malacology and 
Invertebrate Paleontology. Phase Three, B3 
Central, will house the collections areas for 
Malacology, Invertebrate and Vertebrate 
Paleontology, Marine Invertebrates, 
Invertebrate Zoology and fossil Entomology, 
as well as the management area for Vertebrate 
Paleontology. These two phases have been 
combined and construction will begin in 
fall 2011. 

Since 2007, Jessica Cundiff , Curatorial 
Associate for Invertebrate Paleontology, has 
been supervising the preparation of more 
than a million specimens in anticipation 
of the move. "It's been quite a bit of work, 
but we're nearly done. We've cleaned a lot 
of the specimens, finding that some of the 
lesser-used ones were black from the days of 
coal-burning furnaces, and made repairs to 
stabilize specimens as needed." 

Cundiff is also acting Curatorial Associate for 
Vertebrate Paleontology and will soon turn 
her attention to preparing that collection. 
She expects that Vertebrate Paleontology's 
approximately 100,000 specimens of larger, 
heavier fossils will take one to two years to get 
ready — right on schedule for their move. 

'The new prep lab space will have many 
additional pieces of equipment — a dust 
collector, fume hood and rock saws — that 
will make our prep and repair work easier 
and safer," said Cundiff. "We're really looking 
forward to it." 

The Northwest Building 

Solnhofen specimen before and 
after repah 

Annual Report 2010-201 1 



New Cryogenic Collection 

The MCZ collections of genetic material — 
tissue samples for DNA and RNA extraction — 
have been housed in frozen storage in 
collections and labs all around the MCZ, 
complicating tracking and sending curatorial 
staff scrambling during power outages. 
To provide a more accessible and reliable 
system for the storage and preservation of 
this material, a Cryogenic Collection is being 
created to centralize sample storage from 
across the MCZ in liquid nitrogen-cooled 

Breda Zimkus. the Cryogenic Collection 
Project Manager, has been working on 
converting former collection storage space 
in the MCZ Labs in the building's basement. 
The space is nearly completed and the 
institution's first liquid nitrogen cryovats will 
be delivered in September 2011. "For our 
purposes, cryovats are the superior choice 
because the colder the storage, the longer the 
sample remains viable for genetic research," 
explained Zimkus. 'The three cryovats will 
accommodate 40,000 samples each, enough 
space for our existing collections with room 
for growth — and we have floor space for 
one or two more." All of the centrally stored 
samples will be barcoded for easy access, 
resulting in a more efficient workflow that 
will free up collections staff and improve 
the handling of the samples. According to 
Zimkus, 'The facility is designed to support 
the work of all the scientific staff at the MCZ." 

During planning, Zimkus discovered that 
while there were many options in designing 
a cryogenic facility, there were no right 
answers for every circumstance and little 
published information to help evaluate the 
options. To help rectify this deficiency, she 
received a grant to develop best practices for 
genetic resource collections associated with 
natural history museums. She expects to 
share her results at the 2012 annual meeting 
of the Society for the Preservation of Natural 
History Collections and eventually publish to 
assist others in the field. 

New Ichthyology Specimen Tanks 

Many MCZ specimens are stored in fluid, 
including most aquatic invertebrates, fishes, 
amphibians and reptiles. During recent 
collections renovations, the MCZ purchased 
123 custom-designed three-foot stainless 
steel tanks to replace many old steel-lined 
wooden tanks, some dating back to the 
Agassiz years. Multiple new oversized tanks 
were also purchased, some of which can 
hold specimens up to 12 feet long, such as 
sharks, marlin, ocean sunfish (Mola mold), 
grouper and other large spiny fishes. 

Karsten Hartel and Andrew Williston 

Karsten Hartel, Curatorial Associate for 
Ichthyology, explained, "The large specimens 
in the MCZ Ichthyology collection date back to 
the 1800s and are scientifically valuable in part 
because many museums don't have facilities 
to keep fishes of this size." For example, the 
collection contains the heads of a basking shark 
and a manta ray, each weighing around 250 
pounds. Specimens of these species, and of this 
size, are very rare in collections. 

"As large fishes continue to disappear from 
the world's waters, it is imperative that 
museums be able to house representative 
large specimens for future anatomical and 
systematic studies. Our new tanks ensure that 
we will be able to add critical large specimens 
to our collection and to maintain them in 
good condition for years to come," said 
George Lauder, Curator of Ichthyology and 
Bigelow Professor of Ichthyology. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 



Database Update 

The multi-vear migration of all legacy 
collections databases to the master 
museum-wide database, MCZbase, has been 
completed. Data entry from the original 
specimen ledgers and catalogues is nearly 
completed as well, and the scanning of these 
resources is almost finished. Once linked to 
MCZbase, researchers will be able to call up 
a specimen record arid \iew the image of die 
original ledger page where it was recorded. 

The MCZ Lepidoptera Rapid Data Capture 
Project will produce the first Entomology 
collection to be represented in MCZbase. 
During the past twelve months, thirty-three 
undergraduate smdents and volunteer 
interns have contributed to this effort, 
including photographing butterflies and 
transcribing data in the collection room. 

According to project manager Rod Eastwood, 
butterfly data capture has now reached the 
halfway mark, with approximately 100,000 
butterfly specimens and labels imaged. 
A quarter of these have pin label data 
transcribed into the Lepidoptera database in 
preparation for uploading to MCZbase. 

"Digitizing the butterfly collection and 
making the images available online not onlv 
makes the collection immediately accessible 

to researchers around the world, but also 
prorides a valuable resource for research into 
butterfly wing shape and color patterning," 
said Naomi Pierce, Curator of Lepidoptera 
and Hessel Professor of Biology. 

The protocols developed for the butterfly 
collection will be adapted to image and 
database other taxa in the insect collections, 
starting with the large and important MCZ 
ant collection. 

In other developments, MCZbase is currently 
feeding all of its specimen photos into the 
Encyclopedia of Life, and the MCZ has 
connibuted specimen data to 4,278 EOL 
species pages to date. MCZbase is now also 
calling out to Berkeley Mapper to gather 
data to create point distribution maps with 
GoogleMaps and other applications. 

The MCZ Lepidoptera Rapid Data 
Capture Project 

Annual Report 2010-201 1 



MCZ Research Making Headlines 

Lolita and Lepidoptera 

In 1945, Vladimir Nabokov, renowned 
author of Lolita and lifelong lepidopterist, 
proposed a revolutionary theory 
regarding the butterflies he studied, the 
Polyommatus blues. Without any means 
more sophisticated than a microscope, he 
described a bold new theory of how and 
when the blues arrived in the New World. In 
the intervening years, however, few scientists 
seriously considered his hypothesis. 

In his paper, Nabokov, a de facto curator 
of Lepidoptera at the MCZ, described the 
migration of Polyommatus blues from Asia 
over the Bering Strait in five waves, each 
giving rise to a separate New World group. 
Using genetic sequencing of newly collected 
samples, Naomi Pierce and her colleagues 
set out to reconstruct the family tree of 
Nabokov's blues in research that spanned 
eight years and involved six expeditions to 
the Andes to collect the necessary species. 

The team used a technique called a 
"molecular clock" to determine how long 
ago the various New World species of 
Polyommatus blues evolved. This dating 
would indicate which of the competing 
theories — including an alternative 

hypothesis that the species diverged upon 
the breakup of ancient Gondwanaland 80 to 
100 million years ago — was correct. 

The team's research determined that 
the butterflies arrived in South America 
approximately 1 1 million years ago, within 
the time frame postulated by Nabokov, when 
the Bering land bridge still existed and 
temperatures were favorable for the relatively 
warm-adapted butterflies to disperse to South 
America. Moreover, they found that Nabokov 
correctly predicted the sequence of the 
subsequent four waves of migration that gave 
rise to the groups of these butterflies that we 
now see in North America. The ancestors of 
each of these groups were increasingly cold- 
adapted, matching the cooling temperatures 
occurring across the Bering Straits. Thus, 
more than 65 years later, Nabokov's 
revolutionary theory regarding the migration 
and evolution of his beloved blues has been 
proved to be astonishingly accurate. 

Vila R, Bell CD, Macniven R Goldman-Huertas B, Ree RH, 
Marchall CR, Balint Z, Johnson K, Benyamini D, Pierce NE 
(201 1 ) Phylogeny and palaeoecology of Polyommatus blue 
butterflies show Beringia was a climate-regulated gateway 
to the New World. ProcRoySocB 278:2737-2744. 

Revealing the Role of Seasons in Biodiversity 

Earth's biodiversity is higher in the tropics, 
but why? Is diversity fostered by increased light 
and heat, or by lower variation in seasonal 
temperamres? In research published in 
Paleobiology, Brian Farrell worked with his 
former student and MCZ Associate Bruce 
Archibald and colleagues to seek the answer 
in deep, geologic time. 

They compared insect diversity at two modern 
locations — the Harvard Forest Ecological 
Research Site, a temperate forest with high 
seasonality, and a Costa Rican tropical forest 
with high levels of light and heat but low 
seasonality — with the exceptionally well- 
preserved insects of the McAbee fossil bed in 
British Columbia. When the McAbee fossils 
were created 52.9 million years ago, Earth's 
climate was far less seasonal at all latimdes, 
allowing Uopical species such as palm trees and 
crocodiles to live in what is now the high Arctic. 

The researchers discovered that the ancient 
Canadian site's insect diversity is similar 
to that of the modern Costa Rican forest, 
despite a marked difference in latitude, 
suggesting that lower variation in seasonal 
temperatures — rather than heat or light — 
drives increased biodiversity. 

Up through the Eocene epoch — when most 
of today's organisms were diversifying — the 
world lacked pronounced seasonality, much 
like today's tropics. Interestingly, the findings 
indicate that, in the present day, it is not the 
heat of the tropics that promotes diversity, 
but the seasons of the higher-latitude 
temperate zone that depresses diversity. 

Archibald SB, Bossert WH, Greenwood DR, Farrell BD 

(2010) Seasonality, the latitudinal gradient of diversity, and 
Eocene insects. Paleobiology 36:374-398. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 


Biomechanics and Fluid Dynamics 

When moving through water, fishes with 
flexible fins must continually react to the 
surrounding fluid to maintain stability and 
steady forward movement. Until recendy, die 
main method of analyzing fish wakes — and 
therefore the movement and force applied 
to the water by the fins — has been limited 
to two-dimensional techniques, which have 
left considerable room for error. In research 
published in Biology Letters, Brooke Flammang 
and colleagues used a novel 3D laser imaging 
technique to instandv capture the interaction 
between fishes and their environment. The 
research was designed to test assumptions 
made under two-dimensional methods and 
to examine the interaction between the 
dorsal and anal fin wake and the tail fin, 
which has been technically difficult to do with 
traditional imaging approaches. 

On a "treadmill for fish," four bluegill 
sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and a cichlid 
fish {Pseudotropheus greshakei) swam singly in 
a recirculating flow tank seeded with plastic 
particles suspended in die flow. A pulse laser 
illuminated the fluid downstream of the 
swimming fish, and die particle position and 
displacements were capmred by a camera 
and calculated using software. With the 
new svstem, researchers are able to analvze 

die entire volume of water being 
moved in each of multiple sequential 
photographic images. 

Flammang, an MCZ 
postdoctoral fellow at die 
Lauder lab, discovered that 
the dorsal and anal fins make 
a great conuibution to die 
tail fin wake, and thus are 
additional propellers, not 
merely stabilizers. Scientists 
have known that the dorsal 
and anal fins are important 
for balance, but have only 
now been able to show that 
they also play a significant role 
in locomotion. 

Flammang also used volumetric imaging to 
examine shark tail hydrodynamics in research 
to be published in Proceedings of the Royal 
Society B. 

Flammang BE, Lauder GY, Troolin. DR. Strand TE 
(2011) Volumetric imaging offish locomotion. Biol Lett 

Flammang BE. Lauder GY, Troolin DR, Strand TE 
(2011) Yolumetric imaging of shark tail hydrodynamics 
reveals a three-dimensional dual-ring vortex wake 
structure. Proc Roy Soc B 278:3670-3678. 

A novel 3D imaging technique uses a 

pulse laser to capture the displacement 
oj plastic particles in a flaw tank. 

Tongue Tales: How Dogs Lap 

Have you ever watched a dog lapping water 
and wondered how r the liquid gets into 
its mouth? To a casual observer, the dog's 
tongue seems to curl under and make a 
spoon shape, leading some to conclude that 
dogs scoop up liquid with the underside 
of their tongues. Cats, however, pull water 
into their mouths using the upper surface 
of their tongues. Since the oral cavities 
of cats and dogs are similarly structured, 
this lapping mechanism shouldn't be 
fundamentally different. So how, really, 
does water get to the dog's mouth? 

It has been shown that when cats lap, they 
curl their tongue backwards until it comes 
to rest on, but does not penetrate, the 
surface of the liquid. Then as the cat lifts its 
tongue, liquid is drawn up into the mouth 
on the upper surface of the tongue. 

Using high-speed light \ideos and 
X-ray \ideos, A.W. Crompton and 
Catherine Musinsky recorded a 
dog lapping broth. The \ideos 
show that when the dog dipped its 
tongue into the broth, it did scoop 
liquid into a spoon-shaped area 
on the underside of its tongue. 
However, when the tongue was 
withdrawn, the liquid fell out. 
Instead, a column of liquid was 
drawn up on the surface of the 
tongue and then trapped in the 
mouth as the jaw closed — -just 
as in cats. Their findings were 
published online in Biology Letters. 

Crompton AW, Musinsky C (2011) How 
dogs lap: ingestion and inuaoral transport 
in Cants familiaris. Biol Lett 7:882-884. 

C +56 i 

E +90 ms 

Annual Report 2010-201 1 



Marie Manceau (left) and Hopi Hoekstra 

Designer Genes 

Survival in the wild can be 
determined by how well an 
animal's coloration hides it 
from predators. However, 
the genetic mechanisms 
that create color patterns 
have been little understood. 
Marie Manceau and Hopi E. 
Hoekstra used two populations 
of deer mice, each differentiy 
adapted to be camouflaged in 
their particular environment, 
to show how the Agouti gene 
plays a key developmental role 
in color pattern evolution. 

The color pattern in deer 
mice — a dark back and a light 
belly — is the most typical in 
vertebrates. The researchers found that the 
expression of the Agouti gene in the belly of 
the developing fetus delays the maturation of 
cells that will eventually produce pigments, 
and thus the development of color, in that 
area of the body. In addition, the researchers 
found that subtle changes in the gene's 

embryonic activity can also make a profound 
difference in the distribution of pigments 
across the entire body. Their findings were 
published in Science. 

Beyond color patterning, this study 
highlights how even small changes in Agouti 
gene expression in embryos can establish a 
completely new color pattern in adults. In 
deer mice, natural selection drives changes in 
the amount and place of Agouti expression, 
which in turn results in new color patterns 
that can camouflage animals from predators 
in habitats ranging from dark forests to sandy 

Manceau and Hoekstra plan to continue 
their research with animals having more 
complex color patterns, such as chipmunks, 
to determine if the same pre-patterning 
mechanisms seen in deer mice are also 

Manceau M, Domingues VS, Mallarino R Hoekstra HE 
(2011) The developmental role of Agouti in color pattern 
evolution. Science 331:1062-1065. 

Physical Evolution Keeps Pace with Ecological Opportunity 

Adaptive radiation — where a single ancestral 
species gives rise to many descendants, 
each adapted to a different part of the 
environment — is possibly the single most 
important source of biodiversity in the 
world. One of the best-studied examples 
of adaptive radiation is the Anolis lizards, 
which arrived in the islands of the Caribbean 
around 40 million years ago from South 
America and evolved into numerous species 
of dramatically differing body sizes and limb 

In theory, ecological opportunity — the 
availability of resources, such as food and 
territory, and the amount of competition 
for those resources — is the primary factor 
regulating the pace of species diversification, 
so the rate of diversification should slow as 
opportunity declines. However, does this 
theory also hold true for the diversification 
of body size and shape? 

To investigate the relationship between 
ecological opportunity and morphological 
evolution, D. Luke Mahler, Jonathan B. Losos 
and colleagues employed genetic methods 
and data from body measurements of around 
100 species of Caribbean anoles from Cuba, 
Hispaniola, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. 

They found that the earliest species with 
the greatest resources and little or no 
competition developed the widest variety of 
body types and sizes — from foot-long giants 
that travel the treetops to slender lizards that 
live in bushes. But as the number of Anolis 
species increased and their ecological niches 
became smaller, the resulting adaptations in 
body type slowed and became more subde. 
The research was published in Evolution. 

Mahler DL, Revell LJ, Glor RE, Losos JB (2010) Ecological 
oppormnity and the rate of morphological evolution in 
the diversification of Greater An tillean anoles. Evolution 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 


Projects & Initiatives 

Encyclopedia of Life 

The second version of the Encyclopedia of Life ( 
debuted on September 5, 201 1. The free, online collaborative 
resource is vastlv expanded, offering information on more 
than one-diird of all known species on Earth. EOL Version 2 
(EOLv2) features a new design and tools that make it easy for 
users to find organisms and create personalized collections of 
photos and information. 

As an EOL cornerstone institution, Harvard University 
is extensivelv involved in building EOL. The MCZ-based 
EOL Learning + Education Group has initiated several 
new collections of Harvard contributions ( 
collections/5923). These collections include LifeDesks 
created by the MCZ's EOL Fellows. Gisele Kawauchi and 
Breda Zimkus; field guides customized for the Harvard 
Museum of Natural Historv exhibitions; and podcasts bv E.O. 
Wilson and others. In addition, Harvard undergraduates 
have created species accounts as part of their biology courses 
and published them to EOL via Education LifeDesks, 
Mushroom Observer and AmphibiaWeb. 

The MCZ has contributed data from its ten research 
departments to 4,278 EOL species pages, and MCZbase, 
the museum-wide specimen database, is currently feeding 
all of its specimen photos into EOL. The MCZ's Ernst 
Mayr Library belongs to the Biodiversity Heritage Library, 
whose members have scanned around 35 million pages of 
biodiversity literature and made them available to users 
worldwide through EOL. 

Field Guide _._ 

Western Honeybee 

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The EOL Learning + Education Group ( 
is charged with developing tools to facilitate the use of EOL's 
data. Their Field Guide tool, currently in beta testing, is a way 
to organize species information for a particular project. For 
example, a field guide was made for a species inventory in 
Harvard Yard. 

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The group is also tasked to work with stakeholders to better 
understand and develop new ways that EOL can be integrated 
into biodiversity learning. To better understand and prioritize 
EOL's core functionality, the Learning + Education Group 
sponsored two workshops to gather requirements from EOL 
users and partners, hi September 2010, 20 representatives of 
museums, nature centers, zoos, aquariums and other settings 
in the U.S. and abroad attended Using EOL in PnNit Exhibits to 
explore wa\s in which EOL, through its content and associated 
tools and senices, can be used to support and enhance the 
visitor experience in informal science institutions. During the 
International EOL Learning and Education Wmkshop (March 31- 
April 1 , 201 1 ) , representatives of EOL regional partners from the 
Arab region, Australia, China, Costa Rica, The Netherlands and 
South Africa discussed the goals, opportunities and challenges of 
working together and the EOL content, tools and senices needed 
to ad\ance biodiversity learning worldwide. 

In another international initiative, the Learning + Education 
Group received a grant from die Darid Rockefeller Center 
for Latin American Studies to help implement Cvberhives, 
an online Spanish-language educational program developed 
by the National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica (INBio). 
In 2010, IXBio became an EOL regional paruier to serve 
Central American species information in Spanish. ( yberhives 
is an online project diat uses science and technology to 
encourage and support middle school children to learn 
about biodiversity in their own communities. With die 
Genual American EOL portal in place, it will be possible 
to implement Cvberhives in other countries in die region. 
The giant will enable participants from EOL's Learning + 
Education Group, IXBio (Costa Rica) and the Ministries of 
Education and non-governmental organizations in Panama. 
Xicaragua and El Salvador to develop a plan to implement 
and test die Cvberhives learning model regionallv. 

Annual Report 2010-201 1 



Zofnass Family Gallery Debuts with New England Forests Exhibition 

The generous gift of Paul J. 
Zofnass, Harvard alumnus 
and member of the MCZ 
Faculty governing board, has 
made possible a new gallery 
and exhibition at the Harvard 
Museum of Natural History. 
The largest donation in the 
museum's history has created 
the Zofnass Family Gallery and 
the permanent exhibition New 
England Forests, both of which 
debuted on May 21, 2011. 

New England Forests explores 
the natural history and ecology 
of the regional forests, their responses to 
human activity and their environmental 
significance. The exhibition highlights three 
facets of the region's woodlands — the forest 
primeval, the transitional forest and the 
New England wetland habitat — and the rich 
natural history collections of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology are featured in all 
three forest landscapes. 

Paul Zofnass and family at the Gallery 's opening. From left: 
sister Joan Zofnass, daughter Rebecca Zofnass, Paul Zofnass 
and wife Renee Ring. 

Curatorial staff from the ornithology 
and mammalogy collections helped 
select specimens that would accurately 
reflect the fauna found in New England 
forest habitats. "Given the incredible 
diversity of bird species and specimens 
to choose from, we wanted to ensure 
that the exhibit displayed familiar but 
key species found in those habitats," said 
Jeremiah Trimble, Curatorial Associate in 
Ornithology. Specimens from the MCZ 
collections include current and former 
forest residents — moose, caribou, wolves, 
foxes, skunks, porcupines, hawks and 
woodpeckers — as well as invasive species 
such as coyotes. 

The exhibition conveys current research 
about how forest communities work, cycle 
water and carbon, interact with climate 
and respond to invasive species, drawing 
on the expertise of evolutionary biologists, 
botanists, ecologists and system scientists 
from across the University to tell the forest's 
story. Visitors are encouraged to observe 
and "read" the local landscape for clues 
about its past and to contemplate the 
challenges and choices we face in planning 
our forests' future. 

Multimedia displays in the exhibition will be 
updated as new research from the MCZ and 
others enriches understanding of the forests 
and the organisms that live there. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 

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Quality Control for Species-Occurrence Data 

MCZ Director James Hanken is the principal 
investigator for "Filtered Push: Continuous 
Quality Conuol for Disuibuted Collections 
& Other Species-Occurrence Data." The 
National Science Foundation awarded 
the three-vear, SI. 6 million giant in fall 
2010. Paul Morris, Biodiversity Informatics 
Manager, will be leading efforts on the behalf 
of the MCZ. 

Species-occurrence data associated with 
biological collections — which species was 
observed at a geographic location at a given 
time — have historically been used mainly 
by taxonomists. With the advent of digital 
aggregation technologies these data have 
become readily available for many other 
uses, such as modeling species distributions 
and assessing the effects of climate change 
on biological diversity. 

Through aggregation, large quantities of 
species-occurrence data can be gathered 
simultaneously from many disuibuted sources. 

This process, however, has highlighted 
the frequency of problems regarding the 
accuracv, completeness, consistency of 
representation and timeliness of those data. 
Accordingly, researchers often are uncertain 
about whether these data are suitable for use 
in their work. 

Data quality and fiuiess for use will be 
addressed through Filtered Push Continuous 
Quality Conuol software, which allows 
data providers and consumers to define 
potential errors in data, develop metrics 
for those errors, analyze disuibuted data to 
detect potential errors, and close the quality 
management cvcle bv sending corrections 
back to the curators of the original data sets. 

The project will specifically benefit 
aggregators that serve species-occurrence 
data to the public and other research 
domains, such as the Encyclopedia of Life 
and the Global Biodiversity 7 Information 

Linking Field Notes to Specimens and Published Literature 

The California Academy of Sciences is 
partnering with the MCZ's Ernst Mayr Library 
and Ornithology department along with other 
natural history institutions to develop a system 
for integrating biological researchers' field 
and specimen notes with the corresponding 
museum specimens and elecuonically 
published literature. The project will provide 
enhanced and integrated access to biological 
data that will serve a wide variety of users and 
connect to other ongoing projects, such as the 
Biodiversity Heritage Library. 

As a part of a larger giant from the U.S. 
Instimte of Museum and Library Services, the 
MCZ has been awarded funds to pursue the 
pilot project: "Archives and Specimens from 
the Birds of the Cambridge Region by William 

A curator at the MCZ from 1885 to 1902, 
William Brewster published Birds of the 
Cambridge Region in 1906. In the pilot project, 
the MCZ's Ornithology department and the 
Ernst Mayr Library will digitize the historical 
materials and specimens associated with 

Brewster's ornithological studies in and 
around Cambridge. The collection comprises 
more than 1 ,850 specimens collected by 
Brewster, 2,800 specimens he acquired and 
9,000 pages of archival materials, including 
field notebooks, correspondence, manuscripts 
and photographs. The entire body of work 
will present Brewster's detailed observations, 
pioneering sUidies, notes and assertions 
about living nature — particularly birds — as he 
understood them. 

Inclusion of Brewster's unpublished 
observations and writings will enhance 
contemporary ornithological studies. As the 
specimens and notebooks are scanned and 
cataloged or entered into a database, the 
metadata will be improved by adding digital 
tags that will include names (taxonomic 
and personal), dates, localities and other 
contexmal information. Once the records are 
complete, the materials will be exported to 
the Biodiversity Heritage Library and there 
linked to the published literature and to 
specimen data via the Encvclopedia of Life. 

William Brewster, 1883 

Annual. Report 2010-201 1 



Ernst Mayr Library 

In 1861, the MCZ's library was founded 
when Louis Agassiz purchased Belgian 
paleontologist Laurent Guillaume de 
Koninck's collection of books. Together 
with much of Agassiz's own private 
collection, these volumes formed the core 
of the new library. Now celebrating 150 
years of information provision, the Ernst 
Mayr Library has grown to around 300,000 
volumes of books and journals and is an 
integral part of the MCZ. "The Library is 
a key historical zoological collection that 
has evolved along with the MCZ and has a 
vibrant digitization program contributing 
to the Biodiversity Heritage Library," 
explained Constance Rinaldo, Librarian of 
the Ernst Mayr Library. "The Library, with 
the merger of the Biological Laboratories 
Library, is now a key support for life 
sciences programs at Harvard." 

Even with its ongoing scanning efforts, not all 
information is available online. People come 
from around the world to conduct deep 
research using the Library's historic volumes 
and artifacts. "In this increasingly fast-paced, 
digital world it is easy to lose sight of the 
significance of a comfortable library space, 
opportunities for browsing serendipitously 
and the tactile value of an important, yet 
beautiful, scientific work," said Rinaldo. 

The Ernst Mayr Library is one of the 
founding members of the Biodiversity 
Heritage Library (BHL), a group of 
organizations making biodiversity 
literature openly available via the Internet. 

This digitization effort is important for 
taxonomists, who traditionally had to 
travel extensively to physically access 
the literature, and especially valuable to 
scientists around the world who may not 
have the means to make these journeys. 
The BHL scanning effort has produced 
more than 36 million scanned pages of 
biodiversity literature to date, and this 
number is continually increasing. BHL 
Brazil, the latest of several global BHL 
efforts, was launched December 1, 2010. 

In recognition of the work in building the 
digital library, the BHL was awarded the 
John Thackray Medal in 2010 by the Society 
for the History of Natural History. The 
John Thackray medal recognizes significant 
achievements in the history or bibliography 
of natural history, specifically "making 
available . . . collections and/or information 
in new and novel ways." 

International Congress on Invertebrate Morphology 

In June 2011, the MCZ 
and the Department of 
Organismic and Evolutionary 
Biology hosted the second 
International Congress on 
Invertebrate Morphology. 
Invertebrates — including 
sponges, flatworms, insects, 
clams, snails and other 
non-vertebrate life — include 
around 1.2 million described species and 
96% of the total known animal diversity. 
Gonzalo Giribet is the incoming president 
of the International Society of Invertebrate 
Morphology, which organized the event. 

More than 230 delegates from 23 countries 
gathered to hear presentations and engage 
in discussions related to invertebrate form, 
function and development. Speakers 
included Christopher Laumer and Alicia 
Perez-Porro, graduate students in the 
Giribet lab. Adam Baldinger, Curatorial 
Associate of Invertebrate Zoology, Gonzalo 
Giribet, and postdocs Marta Novo, Ana 
Riesgo, Sonia Andrade and Alexander 
Ziegler presented posters at the event. 

In addition to the presentations, attendees 
were invited to examine special collections 
at the MCZ and die Ernst Mayr Library and 
view the Blaschka glass sea creatures. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 


• Aktipis SYV. Giribet G (2010) A phytogeny of Yetigastropoda 
and other "aichaeogastropods": re-organizing old gastropod 
clades. Invertebr Biol 129:220-240 

• Archibald SB, Bossert WH, Greenwood DR. Farren BD 
(2010) Seasonality, the latitudinal gradient of diversity, and 
Eocene insects. Paleobiology 36:374-398 

• Balakrishnan CN. Ekblom R Volker M. Westerdahl H, 
Kotkiewicz H. Godinez R. Burt DW". Graves T, Giiffin DK, 
Wan en W. Edwards SV (2010) Gene duplication and 
fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility 
complex. BMCBiol8:29 

• Barrett RDH, Schluter D (2010) Clarifying mechanisms 
of evolution in stickleback using field studies of natural 
selection on genes. In In Search of the Causes of Evolution: Field 
Obseii<ations to Mechanisms (Grant P. Grant R eds) 332-346. 
Princeton Universitv Press: Princeton, NJ 

• Barrett RDH (2010) Adaptive evolution of lateral plates 
in stickleback A case smdv in functional anahsis of natural 
variation./Ks/i Biol 77:311-328 

• Berg AM Biewener AA (2010) Wing and bodv kinematics 
of takeoff and landing flight in die pigeon (Columba Iruia). 

J Exp Biol 213:1651-1658 

• Biewener AA. Daniel T (2010) A mo\ing topic: control and 
d\namics of animal locomotion, [guest ed intro] Biol Lett 

• Buder AD. Edgecombe GD, Ball AD. Giribet G (2010) 
Resolving the phylogenetic position of enigmatic New 
Guinea and Sevchelles Scutigeromorpha (Chilopoda) : a 
molecular and morphological assessment of Ballonemini. 
ImwtebrSyst 24:539-559 

• Carlson RL Lauder GV (2010) Living on the bottom: 
kinematics of bendiic station-holding in darter fishes 

( Percidae: Edieostomatinae ) . J A lotpliol 2 7 1 :25-35 

• Castillo-Ramirez S. Lhi L, Pearl D. Edwards SV (2010) 
Bavesian estimation of species trees: a practical guide to 
optimal sampling and analysis. In Estimating Species Trees: 
Practical and Tfieoretical Aspects (Knowles LL, Kubatko LS. eds) 
15-33. WTley-Blackwell: New Jersey 

• Chuong EB. Tong W, Hoekstra HE (2010) MatemaHetal 
conflict rapidly evohing proteins in die rodent placenta. Mol 
BtolEvol 27:1221-1225 

• Qouse RM. Giribet G (2010) When Thailand was an 
island — the phvlogenv and biogeographv of mite harvestmen 
(Opiliones, Cyphophdialmi. Stvlocellidae) in Soudieast Asia 

JBiogeogr 37:1114-1130 

• Collar DC, Schulte U JA, O'Meara BC, Losos JB (2010) 
Habitat use affects morphological diversification in dragon 

• Collin R Giribet G (2010) Report of a cohesive gelatinous 
egg mass produced by a tropical marine bivalve. Invertebi Biol 

• Crompton AW, Owerkowicz T, Skinner J (2010) Masticatory 
motor pattern in die koala (Phascolaixtos cinereus) : a 
comparison of jaw movements in marsupial and placental 
herbhores./£# Zbo/313:564-578 

• DaSiha MB. Pintoda-Rocha R Giribet G (2010) Canga 
trnatae, a new genus and species of Cyphophdialmi from 
Brazilian Amazon caves (Opiliones: Xeogoveidae) . Zootaxa 

• de Bivort B, Qouse RM. Giribet G (2010) A 
morphometrics-based phvlogenv of the temperate 

Gondwanan mite harvestmen (Opiliones, 
Cyphophdialmi. Pettalidae) .J Zool 5g \t 
EvolRes 48:294-309 

• de Bivort B, Giribet G (2010) A 
systematic revision of the Soudi African 
Pettalidae (Arachnida Opiliones: 
C\phophdialmi) based on a combined 
analysis of discrete and continuous 
morphological characters with die 
description of seven new species. Im<ertebr 
Syst 24:371-406 

• Dong H. Bozkurttas M. Mittal 
R Madden P. Lauder GV (2010) 
Computational modeling and anah'sis 
of the hvdrodvnamics of a highly 
deformable fish pectoral fin. J Fluid Mech 

• Edgecombe GD. Bonato L, Giribet G 
(2010) Brooding in Mecistocephalus 
togensis (Geophilomorpha: 
Placodesmata) and die evolution 
of parental care in centipedes 
(Chilopoda). IntJ Myriapod 3:139-144 

• Fisher HS. Hoekstra HE (2010) 
Competition drives cooperation among 
closely-related sperm of deer mice. Xatutr 

• FlammangBE (2010) Functional morphology of the 
radialis muscle in shark taik.JMorphol 271:340-352 

• Gable MF, Lazo-Wasem EA Baldinger AJ (2010) The 
Amphipoda of Bermuda — A century of taxonomy. Zool 
Baetica 21:131-141 

• Giribet G (2010) A new dimension in 
combining data' The use of morphology and 
phvlogenomic data in metazoan systematics. 
Acta Zool (StockJiolm) 91:11-19 

• Giribet G. Boyer SL (2010) Moas Ark" 
or 'Goodbve Gondwana": Is the origin of 
New Zealand's terrestrial invertebrate fauna 
ancient, recent, or both? Invertebr Syst 24:1-8 

• Giribet G, Shear WA (2010) The genus Siw 
Latreille, 17% (Opiliones. Cyphophdialmi, 
Sironidae) , in North .America widi a 
ph\ logenetic anahsis based on molecular 
data and the description of four new species. 
Bulletin of the MCZ 160:1-33 

• Giribet G, Yogt L, Perez Gonzalez A 
SharmaP. KnryAB (2010) Amultiloais 
approach to harvestman (Arachnida 
Opiliones) phvlogenv with emphasis 
on biogeographv and the s\stematics of 
Laniatores. Cladistics 26:408-437 

• Goodbody-Gringle)' G. Yollmer S\ T , 
WboIlacottRM. Giribet G (2010) Limited 
gene flow in the brooding coral Faviafmgum 
(Esper, 1897). Mar Biol 157:2591-2601 


25 K-b. 2010 

Journal of 
Fluid Mechanics 

VOI.lMi: 645 

George V. Lauder and colleagues 
contributed "Computational modeling 
and anah'sis of die hvdn >d\n.unics of a 
highK deformable fish pectoral fin" to 
the Journal of Fluid .\ leclianics. 


Volume 271. Number 1. January 2010 



Editor J Matthias Starck 

• Gottlieb JR TangorraJL, Esposito CJ. Lauder GV (2010) 
A biologicallv derived pectoral fin for yaw turn maneuvers, 

Appl Bionics Biomech 7:41-55 

• Hagey TJ. Losos JB. Harmon LJ (2010) Cruise foraging 
of invasive chameleons (Qiamaeleojaeksonti xantholophus) in 
Hawaii. Breviora 519:1-22 

In the Journal of Morphology, 
George V. Lauder ,md RL Carlson 
published "Living on the bottom: 

kinematics of Ixnihii station- 
holding in dai km lisln v (Pen idae: 

Annual Report 2010-201 1 



• HankenJ (2010) The- Encyclopedia of life: a new digital 
resource for taxonomy. In Systema Naturae 250: The Limtaean 

Ark (Polaszek A, ed) 1 27-1 35. Taylor & Francis: Boca Raton 

• Harmon LJ, LososJB, DaviesTj, Gillespie RG, eta! (2010) 
Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in 
comparative data. Evolution 64:2385-2396 

• Hoekstra HE (2010) Evolutionary Biology: the next 150 
years. In Evolution Since Darwin: The First 150 Years (Bell MA, 
Fuaiyma DA, Eanes WF, LevintonJS, eds) 631-656. Sinauer 
Press: Sunderland, MA 

• Hoekstra HE (2010) In search of the elusive behavior gene, 
hi In Search of the Causes of Evolution: From Field Observations to 

Meclianisms (Grant PR, Grant BR, 
eds) 192-210. Princeton University 
Press: Princeton, NJ 

In the Light 


Essays from the Laboratory and Field 


Edited by Jonathan B. Losos 
Foreword by David Quammen 

anet Browne • James Curtsr.ger • Carl Zimme^ • Daniel E- Leberman 
ian B. Losos • Edmund D Brodie III • Naomi E Pierce and Andrew Berry 
■mon • Douglas Emlen • Marlene Zut andTen J Orr 

Michael j. Ryan • David Rezntck • Dav:d Queller • A*el Meyer 
Hopi Hoeksira 'Ted Daescherand Neil Shubm ■ Harry W Greene 

• Hubbard JK, UyJAC, Hauber 
ME, Hoekstra HE, Safran RJ 
(2010) Vertebrate pigmentation: 
from underlying genes to adaptive 
function. Trends Genet 26:23 1-239 

• Huey RB, LososJB, Moritz C 
(2010) Are lizards toast' Science 

• Hull JM, MindeU DP, Talbot SL, 
Kay EH, Hoekstra HE, Ernest 
HB (2010) Population structure 
and plumage polymorphism: 
the intraspecific evolutionary 
relationships of a polymorphic 
raptor. BMC Evol Biol 10:224 

•Janes DE, Organ CL, Fujita MK, 
Shedlock AM, Edwards SV (2010) 

Genome Evolution in Reptilia, the 
Sister Group of Mammals. Annu Rev 
Gencnn Hum Genet 1 1:239-264 

Jonathan B. Losos edited In trie Light 
of Evolution: Essays from tlie Laboratory 
anclField. In addition to Losos, 
contributors included Hopi Hoekstra 
and Naomi Pierce from the MCZ and 
Harvard's Andrew Berry, Janet Browne 
and Daniel Lieberman. 

•Johnson CH (2010) Effects 
of selfing on offspring survival 
and reproduction in a colonial 

simultaneous hermaphrodite (Bugula stolonifera, Bryozoa) . 

Biol Bull219:27-37 

•Johnson CH, Woollacott RM (2010) Larval settlement 
preference maximizes genetic mixing in an inbreeding 
population of a simultaneous hermaphrodite (Bugula 
stolonifera Bryozoa) . MolEcol 19:5511-5520 

•Johnson G, LososJB (2010) The Living World, 6 th Ed. 
McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA 

•Johnson MA Revell LJ, LososJB (2010) Behavioral 
convergence and adaptive radiation: effects of habitat use on 
territorial behavior in Anolis lizards. Evolution 64:1 151-1 159 

•JunoyJ, Andrade SCS, Giribet G (2010) Phylogenetic 
placement of a new hoplonemertean species commensal of 
ascidians. Invertebr Syst 24:61 6-629 

• Kawauchi GY, Giribet G (2010) Are there true 
cosmopolitan sipunculan worms? A genetic variation study 
within Pliascobsoma perlucens (Sipuncula, Phascolosomatidae) . 
MarBiol 157:1417-1431 

• Kemey R, Gross JB, HankenJ (2010) Early cranial 
patterning in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodartylus coqui 
revealed through gene expression. EvolDev 12:373-382 

• Kerney R, Hall BK, HankenJ (2010) Regulatory elements 
of Xenopiis col2al drive cartilaginous gene expression in 
transgenic frogs. IntJDevBiol 54:141-150 

• Leal M, LososJB (2010) Communication and speciation. 
Nature 467:1 59- 160 

• Iventink D, Biewener AA (2010) Nature inspired flight — 
beyond the leap, [guest ed intra] Bi/nmpir Bu/mim 5:1-9 

• I . inni 'ii C, Fan-ell BD (2010) A test of the sympatrit host 
race formation hypothesis in Netxlif/ri/m (Hymenoptera: 
Diprionidae). PmcRoySocB 277:3131-3138 

• Liu L, Ya L, Edwards SV (201 0) A maximum pseudo- 
likelihood approach for estimating species trees under the 
coalescent model. BMC Evol Biol 10:302 

• LososJB, ed (2010) In tfieUgfit of Evolution: Lessons from the 
Laboratory andField. Ben Roberts Publishers: Colorado 

• LososJB (2010) Adaptive radiation, ecological opportunity, 
and evolutionary determinism. Am Nat 175:623-639 

• LososJB (2010) A tale of two radiations: similarities and 
differences in the evolutionary diversification of Darwin's 
finches and Greater AnttUean Anolis lizards. In In Search of 
tlie Causes of Evolution: From Field Observations to Mechanisms. 
(Grant PR, Grant BR, eds) 309-331. Princeton University 
Press: Princeton, NJ 

• LososJB, Mahler DL (2010) Adaptive radiation: the 
interaction of ecological opportunity, adaptation, and 
speciation. hi Evolution Sinee Darwin: TheFirst 150 Years (Bell 
MA Futuyma DA Eanes WF, LevintonJS, eds) 381-420. 
Sinauer Press: Sunderland, MA 

• Mahler DL, Herrel A LososJB, eds (2010) Anolis Newsletter 
VI, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University- 
Cambridge, MA 

• Mahler DL, Revell LJ, dor RE, LososJB (2010) Ecological 
opportunity and the rate of moiphological evolution in the 
diversification of Greater Antillean anoles. Evolution 642731-2745 

• Maldonado M, Riesgo A Bucci A, Rutzler K (2010) 
Revisiting silicon budgets at a tropical continental shelf: Silica 
standing stocks in sponges surpass those in diatoms. Limnol 
Oceanogr 55:2001-2010 

• Manceau M, Domingues V, Iinnen CR, Rosenblum EB, 
Hoekstra HE (2010) Convergence in pigmentation at 
multiple levels: mutations, genes and function. Phil Trans Roy 
SocB 365:2439-2450 

• McKenna DD, Farrell BD (2010) 9genes reinforce the 
phylogeny of Holometabola and yield alternate views on the 
phylogenetic placement of Strepsiptera. PLoSONE 5:ell887 

• Meegaskumbura MS, Meegaskumbura S, Bowatte G, 
Manamendra- Arachchi K, Pethiyagoda R, HankenJ, 
Schneider CJ (2010) Taruga (Anura: Rhacophoridae) , a new 
genus of foam-nesting tree frogs endemic to Sri Lanka. Gey] 
Sci(BioSci) 39:75-94 

• Murienne J, Edgecombe GD, Giribet G (2010) Including 
secondary structure, fossils and molecular dating in the 
centipede tree of life. Mol Phylogenet Evol 57:301-313 

• Murienne J, Karaman I, Giribet G (2010) Explosive 
evolution of an ancient group of Cyphophthalmi (Arachnida: 
Opiliones) in the Balkan Pertinsitia./ZfrogBegr 37:90-102 

• Ord TJ, Stamps JA LososJB (2010) Adaptation 
and plasticity of animal communication in fluctuating 
environments. Evolution 64:3134-3148 

• Organ CL, Rasmussen M, Baldwin MW, Kellis M, Edwards 
SV (2010) Phylogenomic approach to the evolutionary 
dynamics of gene duplication in birds. In Evolution After Gene 
Duplication (Dittmar K, Liberies D, eds) 253-267. Wiley & 
Sons: Hoboken, NJ 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 


• Phelan C, TangorraJL. Lauder GV. Hale M (2010) A 
biorobotic model of the sunfish pectoral fin for investigations 
of fin sensorimotor control. Bioinspir Biomim 5:035003 

• Pilsk SC, Person MA, deVeer JM. FurfeyJE Kalfatovic 
MR (2010) The Biodiversity Heritage Libran: Advancing 
Metadata Practices in a Collaborative Digital Librarv./ZJZ»r 
Metadata 10:136-155 

• Puerta P. Andrade SCS. JunoyJ (2010) Redescription of 
Uncus acutifmnsSouxhem. 1913 Nemertea Pilidiophora) and 
comments on its phvlogenetic position./.Yrt/ Hist 44:37-40 

• Riesgo A Perez-Portela R Arroyo NL (2010) Halacarid 
mites associated with a North-Atlantic population of the kelp 
Laminariaochmleuca.JXatHist 44:651-657 

• Riesgo, A (2010) Phagocytosis of sperm by follicle cells of 
the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma occidentaiis (Porifera, 
Demospongiae). Tissue Cell 42:198-201 

• Rinaldo C, Norton C (2010) The Biodiversity Heritage 
Libran.': an expanding international collaboration. In 
Confluence of Ideas: Evolving to meet the Oiallenges of Global 
Change, Proceedings of the 35th LAMSLIC Brugges, Belgium 2009 
(BarrD, ed) 115-122. LAMSLIC: Newport, OR 

• Rh era-Rivera NL Martinez-Rivera N, TorresA azquez I, 
Serrano-VelezJL, Lauder GV, Rosa-Molinar E (2010) A 
male poecillid's sexualh dimorphic boclv plan, behavior, and 
nervous svstem. Integr Camp Bid 50:1081-1090 

• Robinson GE, Banks JA Padilla DK, Burggren WW, 
Cohen CS, Dehriche CF, Funk Y. Hoekstra HE, et al (2010) 
Empowering 21st cenairy biologv. BioScience 60:923-930 

• Rodriguez Schettino L Losos JB. Hertz PE, et al (2010) 
The anoles of Soroa: aspects of their ecological relationships. 
Brrvioru 520:1-22 

• Roman J, McCarthy JJ (2010) The whale pump: marine 
mammals enhance primal")' productivity in a coastal basin. 

• Rosenblum EB, Rompler H, Schoneberg T Hoekstra HE 
(2010) White lizards on white sands: the molecular and 
functional basis of phenoiypic convergence. ProcXatlAcad Sci 
USA 107:2113-2117 

• Schick S, Zimkus BM Charming A Kohler J, Lotters S 
(2010) Systematics of "Little Brown Frogs' from East Africa: 
Recognition of Phrynobatmchus sc/tefflen 'and description of 
a new species from the Kakamega Forest, Kenva (Amira 
Phrynobatrachidae). Salamandra 46:24-36 

• Schluter D, Marchinko KB, Barren RDH, Rogers SM (2010) 
Natural selection and the genetics of adaptation in threespine 
stickleback. Phil Trans RoySocB 365:2479-2486 

• Sigwart J, Schwabe E, Saito H, Samadi S, Giribet G (2010) 
Evolution in the deep sea: a combined analysis of the 
earliest diverging lhing chitons (Mollusca Pohplacophora 
Lepidopleurida). htuertebrSyst 24:560-572 

• Smith HM Levi HW (2010) Review of the genus Miavpohys 
(Chelicerata Araneae: Araneidae ) . Arthropod SystPiryl 68:291-307 

• TangorraJL. Lauder GV. Hunter RV. Mittal R Madden 
PGA Bozkurttas M (2010) The effect of fin ray flexural 
rigidity on the propulsive forces generated by a biorobotic 
fish pectoral fm.JExp Biol 213:40434054 

• Tobalske BW'. Biewener AA Warrick DR Hedrick TL 
Powers DR (2010) Effects of flight speed upon muscle activity 
inhummingbirds./£>#£w/ 213:2515-2523 

• Turner LM, Young A Rompler H. Schoneberg T Phelps S, 
Hoekstra HE (2010) Monogamy evolves through multiple 

mechanisms: evidence from MaR in deer mice. MolBiolEi>ol 

• Tytell ED, Borazjani I, Sotiropoulos F Baker TV, .Anderson 
EJ. Lauder GV (2010) Disentangling the functional roles of 
morphology and motion in fish swimming. Integr Camp Biol 

• Vignieri SN. Larson J. Hoekstra HE 

(2010) The selective advantage of crvptic 
coloration in mice. Evolution 64:2153-2158 

• Yogt L Bartolomaeus T Giribet G (2010) 
The linguistic problem of morphology: 
Structure versus homology and the 
standardization of morphological data 
Oadistics 26:301-325 

• Vollmar A MacklinJA Ford LS (2010) 
Natural historv specimen digitization: 
challenges and concerns. Biodh'ersity 
Informatics 7:93-112 

• Warren W'C. Balakrishnan CN. Backstrom 
N. Edwards SV, et al (2010) The genome of 
a songbird Xaturr 464: 757-762 

• Weber JN, et al (2010) Five hundred 
microsatellite markers for Pervmyscus. 
Conserv Genet 11:1243-1246 

• Weiser MD. Sanders NJ, Agosti D. Janda 
M et al (2010) Canopy and litter ant 
assemblages share similar climate-species 
density relationships. Biol Lett 6:769-772 


• Wed EG. Frederickson ME. Yu DW, 

Pierce NE (2010) Economic contract theory tests models of 
mutualism. Pmc Xatl Acad Sci £Y4 107:15712-15716 

• WTllemart RH. Giribet G (2010) A scanning electron 
microscopic survey of the cuticle in Cyphophthalmi 
(Arachnida, Opiliones) with the description of novel sensory 
and glandular sffuctures. Zoomorphology 129:175-183 

• Wilson NG. Rouse GW". Giribet G (2010) .Assessing 
the molluscan hvpothesis Serialia (Monoplacophora + 
Pohplacophora) using novel molecular data Mol Phylogenet 
Evol 54:187-193 

• Wu Y.Jiang K. Hanken J (2010) A new species of newt of 
the genus Paramesotriton (Salamandridae) from southwestern 
Guangdong, China, with a new northern record of/? 
longliensis from western Hubei. Zootaxa 2494:45-58 

• Wu Y, WangY Jiang Fv Hanken J (2010) Anew newt of 
the genus Cynops (Caudata Salamandridae) from Fujian 
Province, southeastern China Zootaxa 2346:42-52 

• Wu Y. W ang Y Jiang K, Chen X, Hanken J (2010) 
Homoplastic evolution of external colouration in .Asian stout 
newts (Pacln niton) inferred from molecular phvlogeny. Zool 
Scr 39:9-22 

• Yamaguchi A Munoz MM, Bose TO, Oberlander JG, Smidi 
S (2010) Sexually distinct development of vocal pathways in 
Xenopus laevis. Dei' Xeurobiol 70:862-874 

• Zjmkus BM. Rodel, MO, Hillers A (2010) Complex patterns 
of continental speciation: molecular phvlogenetics and 
biogeography of sub-Sahaian puddle frogs (Phtynobatrac/ius) . 
Mol Phylogenet Evol 55:883-900 

• Zimkus BM. Schick S (2010) Light at the end of the tunnel: 
insights into the molecular svstematics of East African puddle 
frogs (.Anura Phrynobatrachidae). Syst Biodhrrs 8:39-47 

hi the cover storv dEudkt&m, 
D. Luke Mahler. Jonathan B. 
Losos and colleagues published 
"Ecological opportunity and the rate 
of morphological evolution in the 
diversification of Greater Antillean 
anoles." Mahler received the R A 
Fisher Prize for an outstanding 
Ph. D. dissertation paper published 
in Eivlution. 

Annual Report 2010-201 1 


MCZ Grant Recipients 
Academic Year 2010-201 1 


Grants-ln-Aid of Undergraduate Research (GUR) 

These grants support research by Harvard undergraduates under faculty supervision. Priority 
is given to projects that utilize MCZ and Harvard University Herbaria (HUH) research 
collections, laboratories and facilities. Support for these grants comes from the MCZ's 
Myvanwy M. and George M. Dick Scholarship for Students and from HUH. 

Recipient Faculty Sponsor Project Title Amount 

Annabel C. Beichman 

James J. McCarthy 
& Peter R. Girguis 

The North Atlantic Right Whale Microbiome 


Joseph Brancale IV 

Arkhat Abzhanov 

Morphological analyses of beak diversity in 
the family Thraupidae 


Andrew H. Chen 

N. Michele Holbrook 

Ecology, taxonomy and adaptation of the 
invasive species Myoporum aff. laetum in 

$1 ,500 

Natalie L. Jacewicz 

Jonathan B. Losos 

Proposal to study feeding and mating 
behavior in Anolis lizards with diverse head 
shapes: a field study on Cayman Brae 

$1 ,795 

Alexander M. Kim 

Gonzalo Giribet 

A phylogenetic survey of trans-Isthmian 
freshwater prawns: vicariance and invasion at 
the crossroads of the two Americas 


Bianca M. Lee 

Scott V. Edwards 

Laying the foundation for study of MHC and 
mate choice in Leach's storm petrel 


Kathy S. Lin 

Naomi E. Pierce 

The pattern of caterpillar aggregation in a 
butterfly/ant mutualism 


Kevin H. Lin 

Hopi E. Hoekstra 

Evolution of tail length variation in 

$1 ,400 

Julian Moll-Rocek 

N. Michele Holbrook 

Logging and Brazil nut conservation in 
Amazonian Peru 

$1 ,000 

Linda Y. Pan 

Hopi E. Hoekstra 

Ontogeny of burrowing behavior in deer 
mice {Peromyscus) 


Riva Riley 

Saul Nava 

Effects of environment on learning in fish: a 
study at Los Amigos field station 


Hanny E. Rivera 

Robert M. Woollacott 

Effects of micro-grazers on the larval 
recruitment and survival of the brooding 
coral Pontes astreoides 


Elizabeth K. Schold 

Scott V. Edwards 

Phylogeographical analysis of North 
American Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus) 


Guo Xuan Teo 

Jacques Dumais 

Elucidating the "trap mechanism" of 
Porroglossum orchids 


Grace X. Xiong 

George V. Lauder 

Senior thesis research on the kinematics 
and fluid mechanics of anal fin propulsion in 
the clown fish, Notopterus chitala 


Serena Y. Zhao 

Anne Pringle & 
Naomi E. Pierce 

Biodiversity of Laboulbeniales 


Total Awards 



Museum of Comparative Zoology 



Putnam Expedition Grants 

Putnam Expedition Grants are intended to support MCZ faculty-curators, postdoctoral 
fellows and graduate students in collecting specimens and data relating to the study of 
comparative zoology. Priority is given to projects that collect living specimens in regions 
where habitats are threatened or fossil specimens in regions most likely to hold important 
clues for unraveling evolutionary strategies. 

Recipient MCZ Department Project Title 


Rowan D. H. Barrett 


Selection on genes in the wild: An 
experimental approach to determine 
the influence of ecology on evolutionary 


Maude Baldwin 


Detecting sugar: functional and evolutionary 
studies of avian sensory perception 


Gilberto Neves 


Diversity and adaptation in mouse 
burrowing behavior 


Scott V. Edwards 


Diversification and phylogeography of 
Palearctic birds: an expedition to eastern 


Heidi Fisher 


Adaptive sperm morphology in Peromyscus 


Gonzalo Giribet 

Invertebrate Zoology 

Exploring the South African pettalid diversity 


Evan Kingsley 


Uncovering the genetic architecture of 
convergent local adaptation in forest deer 


Sarah Kocher 


Genetics of social behavior in Palearctic 


Jonathan B. Losos 


Taking advantage of a human introduction 
to study the genetics and behavioral 
significance of anole dewlap color 


Martha Munoz 


The thermal ecology and evolution 
of Hispaniolan trunk-ground anoles 
(Squamata: Iguanidae) 


Jon Sanders 


How many bacteria are in canopy ants? 
Quantifying one solution to Tobin's Paradox 


Yoel Stuart 


Investigating the genetic basis of dewlap 
color in Anolis distichus 


Ian Wang 


Modeling environmentally associated 
morphological and genetic variation 


Jesse Weber 


Examining natural variation in oldfield 
mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) burrowing 


Breda M. Zimkus 


Proposed expedition to survey the 
herpetofauna of Bateke Plateaux National 
Park in southwestern Gabon 


Total Awards 


Annual Report 2010-201 1 



Ernst Mayr Travel Grants in Animal Systematics 

Ernst Mayr Grants support travel for research in animal systematics and are open to the scientific 
community worldwide. The principal objective of these grants is to stimulate taxonomic work 
on neglected taxa and/or poorly described species. Ernst Mayr Grants typically facilitate visits to 
institutional collections, with preference given to research using the MGZ's collections. 


i 1\ 


4 f 

Recipient Institutional Project Title Amount 


Jose Sebastian 

Museo Argentino de 
Ciencias Naturales 

Taxonomy of Telmatobius (Anura: 


Aylin Alegre 

Instituto de Ecologia 
y Sistematica, Cuba 

Systematics of Biantidae, Thorell, 1879 and 
review of the incertae sedis Anamota Silhavy 
1979 and Turquininia Silhavy 1979 in Cuba 
(Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores) 


Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar 

Harvard University 

Uniting macroevolution and microevolution 
using deep fossil record: the zone of 
variability in the archosaur lineage 

$1 ,395 

Tharina Louise Bird 

Colorado State 

A generic revision of the arachnid family 

$1 ,500 

Bonnie B. Blaimer 

University of 
California, Davis 

Taxonomic revision of the acrobat ant 
Crematogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 
in Madagascar 


Marek L. Borowiec 

University of 
California, Davis 

Generic revision of dorylomorph ants 
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 


Kevin W. Conway 

Texas Agrilife 
Research, Texas 


Taxonomic revision of the New World 
clingfishes (Gobiesocidae: Gobiesocinae) 


Bernice B. 

Michigan State 

Phylogenetic analysis of the ant genus 
Aphaenogaster (Formicidae: Hymanoptera) 
in North America using morphology and 


Cesar G. Duran- 

Universidad Nacional 
Autonoma de 

Taxonomic review of Chrosiothes Simon, 
1 894 (Araneae: Theridiidae) 


Dimitri Forero 

University of 
California, Riverside 

Monographing the bee assassins: 
Systematic revision of the assassin bug 
genus Apiomerus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: 

$1 ,500 

James Herrera 

State University of 
New York, Stony 

Species delineation in the subfossil lemur 
assemblage; how many species have gone 



Museum of Comparative Zoology 


Recipient Institutional Project Title Amount 


John M. Leavengood, Jr. University of 


Revision of the genus Phyllobaenus 
(Coleoptera: Cleridae: Hydnocerinae) 

$1 ,500 

Anna A. Namyatova 

University of New 
South Wales, 

Systematics, biogeography and host plant 
associations of the true bug subtribes 
Monaloniina and Odoniella (Heteroptera: 
Miridae: Bryocorinae: Dicyphini) 


Jean Claude 

Biodiversity Center 

Taxonomic assessment of the ponerine 
ant genus Leptogenys (Hymenoptera: 
Formicidae) from the Malagasy region, 
located at the MCZ 


Vivian E. Sandoval- 

Universidade Federal 
de Vigosa, Brazil 

Taxonomic revision of minute tree-fungus 
beetles of the genus Xylographus Mellie, 
1 847 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Ciidae) 


Eduardo Fernando 

Universidade de Sao 
Paulo, Brazil 

Study of Pompilidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) 
types deposited in the MCZ 


Fabio Laurindo da 

Universidade Federal 
de Sao Carlos, Brazil 

Systematic and biogeography of 
Labrundinia Fittkau, 1962 (Diptera: 
Chrinomomidae: Tanypodinae): a 
morphological and molecular approach 

$1 ,500 

Sarah M. Smith 

Michigan State 

Revision of the New World Scolytus 
Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: 


Andres H. Velez 

University of Puerto 
Rico at Mayaguez 

Revision and phylogeny of the neotropical 
subfamily Nycriborinae (Dictyoptera: 
Blattaria: Blattellidae) 


Lidiana Nogueira 

Universidade Federal 
do Espihto Santo, 

Taxonomic identity of Pristocera 
(Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) 

$1 ,500 

Tatyana Sergeyevna 

Russian Academy of 
Sciences, Institute 
of Biology and Soil 

World revision of the genus Limnephilus 
(Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) 


Total Awards 



Annual Report 2010-201 1 


Awards & Recognition 

Fairish Jenkins, Jr. 


Edward O. Wilson received the BBVA 
Foundation's 2010 Frontiers of Knowledge 
Award in the area of Ecology and 
Conservation Biology and the PEN New 
England Thoreau Prize. In the words of 
the BBVA prize jury, Wilson is "one of the 
most influential thinkers of our time, an 
exceptional biologist and a world-class 
natural historian." 


Farish A Jenkins, Jr., was elected a member 
of the Academy of Arts and Sciences Class 
of 201 1 . Prof. Jenkins was also honored with 
a Harvard College Professorship, honoring 
his achievement in research activities, his 
excellence in undergraduate teaching and 
his conUibution to advising and mentoring 

James Hanken was elected to the Board 
of Directors of the American Institute of 
Biological Sciences and was appointed 
to the Encyclopedia of Life's Executive 

Brian D. Farrell was named 2011-2012 
Fulbright Scholar to the Universidad 
Autonoma de Santo Domingo. In addition 
to his research, he is building a laboratory 
and training local students in museum 
management techniques. 

Hopi E. Hoekstra was elected Vice 
President of the American Society of 

Scott V. Edwards was elected President of 
the American Genetic Association and will 
also assume the presidency of the Society 
for the Study of Evolution in January 2012. 

Gonzalo Giribet was named a distinguished 
visitor to Adelaide University and awarded a 
Visiting Professorship at the Capital Normal 
University in Beijing. He also became 
President of the International Society for 
Invertebrate Morphology and was elected Vice- 
President of the Spanish Malacological Society. 

Naomi Pierce was among the ten people 
selected to be a Fellow of the Entomological 
Society of America. She was nominated for 
this honor by her students. 





Jessica Cundiff 


Jessica Cundiff, Curatorial Associate in 
Invertebrate Paleontology and Acting 
Curatorial Associate in Vertebrate 
Paleontology, received a Harvard University 
Faculty of Arts and Sciences Impact Award 
for "sustained superior performance and 
outstanding contributions." 

Breda Zimkus, Genetics Resources Facility 
Project Manager at the MCZ, received a 
grant from CollectionsWeb to work on 
"Developing best practices for genetic 
resource collections associated with 
traditional natural history collections." 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 



Frank Rheindt received a National Geographic 
Society Committee for Research and 
Exploration Grant for the investigation of 
imdescribed bird taxa on the island of Sulawesi. 

Vera Domingues received the International 
Travel Award from the Society for the Study 
of Evolution. 

Rowan Barrett's work as a graduate 
student was recognized with the Governor 
General of Canada Gold Medal for the 
most outstanding academic record in the 
graduating class for the doctoral degree. 
He also received the University of British 
Columbia Faculty of Science Prize and 
the Howard Alper Prize, given to the 
top postdoctoral candidate in Canada. 

Luke Mahler 

Graduate Students 

Luke Mahler has been awarded the 2011 
R. A. Fisher Prize by the Society for the 
Study of Evolution. The prize is awarded 
for an outstanding Ph.D. dissertation paper 
published in the journal Evolution. 

Dino Martins was named one of National 
Geographic's 2011 Emerging Explorers. 
The award recognizes visionary young 
trailblazers who push the boundaries of 
discovery, adventure and global problem- 
solving early in their careers. 

Hillery Metz was awarded a Summer 
Institute in Statistical Genetics Scholarship. 

Prashant Sharma received 2 nd place 
prize for student presentation at the 18 th 
International Congress of Arachnology. 

Ricardo Godinez Moreno 

received a Harvard 
University Presidential 
Instructional Technology 
Fellowship to work in 
collaboration with EOL 
to develop a tree of life 
viewer to teach Harvard 
undergrads about tree 
thinking and evolution. 

Congratulations to the 
following graduate students 
for predoctoral fellowships: 

• Zachary Lewis, NSF 

Graduate Research 
Fellowship, "A develop- 
mental understanding of 
lung loss in salamanders" 

• Emily Kay, NSF 

Doctoral Dissertation 
Improvement Grant, "Behavioral and 
genomic evidence for sexual isolation 
between two sister species of Peiomyscus" 

• Maude Baldwin, NSF Doctoral 
Dissertation Improvement Grant, 
"Function and evolution of sweet taste 
receptors in birds" 

• Jon Sanders, NSF Doctoral Dissertation 
Improvement Grant, "Functional 
ecology and evolution of an ant gut 

• Leonora Bittleston, NSF Graduate 
Research Fellowship, "Comparing 
the defense of ant-associated plants 
by two mutualistic symbioses: Do ants 
and endophvtes have antagonistic or 
complementary roles?" 


Joanna Larson ' 1 1 received a 201 1- 
2012 Fulbright Grant for her research 
project "Decoding species complexes 
of amphibians and mammals in the 
mountains of Tanzania." 

Adam Clark ' 1 1 was awarded the Thomas 
Hoopes Prize for his senior thesis, "Ant 
communities of the Boston Harbor Islands 
National Recreation Area." 




Dino Martins 

Annual Report 2010-201 1 


Financial Data 

These charts describe the income and expenses of the Museum of Comparative Zoology in fiscal year 201 1 

Endowment includes the annual distribution from endowed 
funds, revenue generated from assets purchased through 
endowments and endowed funds decapitalized per donor 
request. Transfers include Harvard University-funded faculty 
research, financial support for the Ernst Mayr Library and 
other Harvard-funded projects. Other Income comprises 
miscellaneous income from publications, royalties, sales and 
fees, and cost recovery from other MCZ-sponsored activities. 
Reserves represent carry-forward balances used to cover 
an operating deficit. Overhead is funds paid from MCZ- 
based sponsored projects to cover associated facilities and 
adminisUative costs. It is shown as both income (Overhead 
Earned) and expense (Overhead Charged). 

Capital Projects include renovation of the MCZ Laboratories 
building for a cryogenics facility. Building expenses such 
as maintenance, facility improvements and utilities are 
captured in the Space and Occupancy category. Operating 
Expenses consist of equipment purchases, supplies, consultant 
and conference fees, as well as annual subventions to the 
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology (OEB) 
for administrative services. Support for MCZ-afhliated 
graduate students in OEB is included in Scholarships and 
Awards. Institutional Expenses hind other FAS and University 
initiatives and provide general operating support for the 
Harvard Museum of Natural History. 


Expenses and Non-Operating Funds 

Revenue 3% 

Revenue 14% 



Income 1% 

Earned 5% 

Endowment 689 





Federal Sponsored Revenue 




Overhead Earned 


Nonfederal Sponsored Revenue 






Other Income 




& Awards 2% 

Capitalized per 
Donor Request 0% 

Space & 




Charged 5% 


Operating Salaries & Fringe 
Expenses 22% Benefits 47% 


Salaries and Fringe Benefits 


Operating Expenses 


Institutional Expenses 


Space and Occupancy 

$1 ,698,761 

Overhead Charged (Sponsored) 


Scholarships and Awards 

$341 ,635 

Capital Projects 


Capitalized per Donor Request 





Museum of Comparative Zoology 



Andrew A. Biewener 

Chailes P. Lyman Professor of Biology; 

Director, Concord Field Station 

Scott V Edwards 

Professor of Biology; Alexander Agassiz 

Professor of Zoology; Curator of 


Brian D. Farrell 

Professor of Biology; Curator of Entomology 

Gonzalo Giribet 

Professor of Biology; Curator of 

Invertebrate Zoology 

James Hanken 

Professor of Biology; Alexander Agassiz 
Professor of Zoology; Curator of 
Herpetology; Director, MCZ 

Hopi E. Hoekstra 

Professor of Biology; Alexander Agassiz 

Professor of Zoology; Curator of 


Farish A. Jenkins, Jr. 

Professor of Biology; Alexander Agassiz 

Professor of Zoology; Curator of 

\ ertebrate Paleontology 

George V. Lauder 

Professor of Biology; Henry Bryant 
Bigelow Professor of Ichthyology; Curator 
of Ichthyology 

Jonathan B. Losos 
Monique and Philip Lehner Professor 
for the Study of Latin America; Curator 
of Herpetology 

James J. McCarthy 

Professor of Biological Oceanography; 

Alexander Agassiz Professor of Biological 

Oceanography; Acting Curator of 


Naomi E. Pierce 

Sidney A. and John H. Hessel Professor 

of Biology; Curator of Entomology 

Robert M. Woollacott 

Professor of Biology; Curator of Marine 


Emeritus Faculty 

Kenneth J. Boss 
Faculty-Curator, Emeritus; 
Professor of Biology, Emeritus 

A.W. "Fuzz" Crompton 
Faculty-Curator, Emeiitus; Fisher Professor 
of Natural History, Emeritus 

Herbert W. Le\i 

Faculty-Curator, Emeritus; Alexander 

Agassiz Professor of Zoology, Emeritus 

Richard C. Lewonrin 
Professor of Biology, Emeritus; 
Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology, 

Edward O. Wilson 

Honorary Curator in Entomology; 

PeUegrino University Professor, Emeritus 

Postdoctoral Fellows, 
Research Associates 
& Visiting Scholars 

Miguel Alcaide 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Adam Algar 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 


Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Sonia Andrade 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Marco Archetti 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Allison Arnold-Rife 

Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Sarah Ayroles 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Niclas Backstrom 
Ornithology, Ediuards Lab 

Rowan Barrett 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Gilberto Neves Bento 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Rose Carlson 
Ichthyology, Lauder Lab 

Angelica Cibrianjaramillo 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Ronald Clouse 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Thomas Devitt 
Heipetology, Hanken Lab 

Vera Domingues 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Rodney Eastwood 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Marianne Espeland 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Heidi Fisher 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Brooke Flammang 
Ichthyology. Lauder Lab 

Matthew Fujita 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Lliana Medina Guzman 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

David P. Hughes 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Carlos Infante 
Heipetology, Losos Lab 

Milan Jan da 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Daniel Janes 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 


Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Gisele Kawauchi 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Jason Kolbe 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Daniel Kronauer 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Jan Kruyt 
Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Clemens Kupper 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

David Lentink 

Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Matthew Lim 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Huai-Ti Lin 

Concord Field Station, Bieu>ener Lab 

Catherine Ramsay Linnen 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Mark Liu 

Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Marta Lopez-Darias 
Herpetology, Hanken Lab 

David Lubei tazzi 

Global Ant Project, Wilson Lab 

Ricardo Mallarino 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Marie M. Manceau 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Maria de Boef Miara 

Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Gabriel Miller 
Entomology. Pierce Lab 

Ryu tar o Miyagi 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Gerard Talavera Mor 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Carlos Moreno 

Concord Field Station, Bieivener Lab 

Sergio Taboada Moren 
Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Jerome Murienne 
Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Marta Novo 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Akiko Okusu 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Terry Ord 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Chris Organ 
Ornithology. Edwards Lab 

Brant Peterson 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Nadine Piekarski 
Herpetology, Hanken Lab 

Yu-Ping Poh 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Frank Rheindt 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Ana Riesgo 

Invertebrate Zoology, Gaibet 1Mb 

Alicia Rodriguez Perez-Porro 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet 1Mb 

Thomas Sanger 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Andrew Shedlock 
Ornithology, Ediuards Lab 

Serafino Teseo 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Varpu Vahtera 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Sacha Vignieri 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra 1Mb 

Joseph Martins Yisitacao 

Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Ian Wang 

Herpetology, Losos 1Mb 

Johanna Wegener 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Li Wen 

Ichthyology. Lauder 1Mb 

Dean Wendt 

Marine Invertebrates, Woollacott Lab 

Christopher Wills 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra 1Mb 

Katharina Wollenberg 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Alexander Ziegler 
Invertebrate Zoology. Giribet Lab 

Breda Zimkus 
Herpetology. Hanken 1Mb 

Graduate Students 

Christopher Baker 
Entomology. Pierce Lab 

Maude Baldwin 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Leonora Bittleston 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Erin Blevins 
Ichthyology, Lauder Lab 

Shane Campbell-Staton 
Ornithology, Ed-wards Lab 

Glenna Clifton 

Concord Field Station. Biewener 1Mb 

Mark Cornwall 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Nicole Danos 
Ichthyology. Lauder 1Mb 

Amanda Evans 
Entomology, Farrell 1Mb 

Ricardo Godinez 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Vanessa Gonzalez 
Invertebrate Zoology. Giribel Lab 

Patrick Gorring 

Entomology. Farrell Lab 

Alexis Harrison 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Emily Jacobs-Palmer 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra 1Mb 

Collin Johnson 

Marine Invertebrates, Woollacott Lab 

Zona kalis/ewska 
Entomology. Pierce 1Mb 

Emilv K,t\ 

Mammalogy, Hoekstra 1Mb 

Eunsuk Kim 
Entomology. Pierce 1Mb 

Evan Kingsle) 

Mammalogy. Hoekstra Lab 

Christopher Laumer 

Invertebrate Zoology, (.mint Lab 

Zachary Lewis 
Herpetology, Hanken 1Mb 

Jeanette Lim 

Ichthyology. Laudei Lab 

Luke Mahler 
Herj)etology. Losos Lab 


Dino Mai mis 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Hillery Metz 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Talia Moore 

Herpetology & Concord Field Station, 

Losos cs? Biewener Labs 

Lynne Mullen 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Martha Munoz 
Herpetology, Losos I.<il> 

Ivo Ros 

Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Elizabeth Sefton 
Herpetology, Hanken Lab 

Prashant Sharma 
Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Yoel Stuart 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Wenfei Tong 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Sebastian Velez 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Jesse Weber 

Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Yunke Wu 

Herpetology, Hanken Lab 

Xuemai Zhai 
Biological Oceanography, 
McCarthy Lab 


Bruce Archibald 
Associate of Entomology 
Simon Fraser University 

Aaron Bauer 
Associate of Herpetology 
Villanova University 

Reinier Beeuwkes, III 

Associate of Zoology 
Ischemix Company 

Andrew Berry 

Associate of Population Genetics 

Harvard University 

Elizabeth Brainerd 
Associate of Ichthyology 
Brown University 

Donald S. Chandler 

Associate of Entomology 
University of New Hampshire 

Jae Choe 

Associate of Entomology 
Ewha Womans University 

Janet Collett 

Associate of Population Genetics 

University of Sussex 

Bruce Collette 
Associate of Ichthyology 
National Marine Fisheries Service 

David Bruce Conn 

Associate of Invertebrate Zoology 
Berry College 

James Costa 
Associate of Entomology 
Western Carolina University 

Catherine Craig 

Associate of Invertebrate Zoology 

Harvard University 

Harlan Dean 

Associate of Invertebrate Zoology 

Harvard I 'mversity 

Lloyd Demetrius 

Associate of Population Genetics 

Harvard University 

Philip DeVries 

Associate of Entomology 
University of New Orleans 

Gregory D. Edgecombe 
Associate of Invertebrate Zoology 
Natural History Museum, England 

Ben Evans 

Associate of Herpetology 

McMaster University 

Richard Glor 

Associate of Herpetology 
University of Rochester 

Kelvin A. Guerrero 
Associate of Entomology 
Systematic Entomologist/ 
Environmental Consultant 

Michael Hadfield 

Associate of Marine Biology 
Kewalo Marine Laboratory 

Anthony Herrel 
Associate of Herpetology 
Museum National d 'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris 

Berthold Holldobler 

Associate of Entomology 
University of Wurzburg 

Gustavo Hormiga 

Associate of Invertebrate Zoology 

George Washington University 

Alan Rabat 
Associate of Malacology 
Attorney, Bernabei & Wachtel 

Leslie S. Kaufman 
Associate of Ichthyology 
Boston University 

Timothy Laman 
Associate of Ornithology 
National Geographic 

Ruth Hortencia Bastardo Landrau 
Associate of Entomology 
Universidad Autonoma de Santo 

Phillip Lobel 
Associate of Ichthyology 
Boston University 

David Lohman 
Associate of Entomology 
Harvard University 

Vladimir A. Lukhtanov 

Associate of Entomology 
Russian Academy of Sciences 

Duane McKenna 
Associate of Entomology 
University of Memphis 

Russell Mittermeier 

Associate of Herpetology 
Conservation International 

William Montevecchi 
. \ s sociate of ()i nithology 
Memorial University of Newfoundland 

Piotr Naskrecki 
Associate of Entomology 
Conservation International 

Martin Nweeia 

Associate of Mammalogy 
Harvard School of Dental Medicine 

Michele Nishiguchi 

Associate of Invertebrate Paleontology 
New Mexico State University 

Diane B. Paul 

Associate of Population Genetics 

Harvard University 

David L. Pawson 

Associate of Marine Biology 
Smithsonian National Museum of 
Natural History 

Stewart Peck 
Associate of Entomology 
Carleton University 

Paulo Petry 
Associate of Ichthyology 
The Nature Conservancy 

Steve Poe 

Associate of Herpetology 
University of New Mexico 

Michael Rex 

Associate of Malacology 

University of Massachusetts, Boston 

Jury Rudyakov 

Associate of Invertebrate Zoology 
Harvard University 

Chris Schneider 
Associate of Herpetology 
Boston University 

Andrea Sequeira 
Associate of Entomology 
Wellesley College 

Scott R. Shaw 
Associate of Entomology 
University of Wyoming 

Navjot Sodhi 
Associate of Ornithology 
National University of Singapore 

Joel Sohn 

Associate of Ichthyology 

Golden Mountain Trading Company 

Stephen Tilley 
Associate of Herpetology 
Smith College 

James Traniello 
Associate of Entomology 
Boston University 

David Wagner 
Associate of Entomology 
University of Connecticut 

David Wake 
Associate of Herpetology 
University of California, Berkeley 

Marvalee Wake 
Associate of Herpetology 
University of California, Berkeley 

Philip S. Ward 

Associate of Entomology 
University of California, Davis 

Jacqueline Webb 
Associate of Ichthyology 

University of Rhode Island 

R. Haven Wiley 

Associate of Ornithology 
University of North Carolina 

Cheryl Wilga 
Associate of Ichthyology 
University of Rhode Island 

Judith Winston 
Associate of Marine Biology 
Virginia Museum of Natural History 


Emily Aker 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections 

Adam Baldinger 

Curatorial Associate, Invertebrate 

Zoology cjf Malacology 

Dorothy Barr 

Public Services/MCB Liaison 

Librarian, Ernst Mayr Library 

Daniel Belich 

Reference Librarian, Ernst Mayr 


Penny Benson 

Curatorial Assistant, Malacology 

Constance Brichford 
Curatorial Assistant, Collections 

Ronnie Broadfoot 

Circulation /Reference, Ernst Mayr 

Dahlia Bursell 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections 


Christopher Carden 
Cataloger, Biodiversity Heritage 

Margaret Carayannopoulos 
Financial Officer 

Paul Chaikin 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections 


Flavia Chen 

Curatorial Assistant, Ornithology 

Judith Chupasko 
Curatorial Associate, Mammalogy 

Sarah Cohen 

Collection Assistant, Malacology 

Stefan Cover 

Curatorial Assistant, Entomology 

Nicholas Crawford 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Jessica Cundiff 

Curatorial Associate, Invertebrate & 
Vertebrate Paleontology 

Susan DeSanctis 

Serials Acquisitions Assistant, 

Ernst Mayr Library 

Joseph DeVeer 
Head of Technical Services, 
Ernst Mayr Library 

3 2044 

18 701 085 


Samantha Edelheit 

Faculty /Collection Assistant, 
Malacology; Editorial Assistant, 
MCZ Publications 

Katherine Eldridge 
Curatorial Assistant, Ornithology 

Aime Everlv 

Research Assistant, Heipetology 

Charles Farnum 

Curatorial Assistant, Entomology 

Helene Ferranti 

Faculty /Collection Assistant, Biological 

Oceanography & Marine Biology 

Dana Fisher 

Assistant to the Librarian /Special 

Collections, Ernst Mayr Library 

Jacqueline Ford 

Library, Assistant, Ernst Mayr Library 

Linda S. Ford 

Director, Collections Operations 

Mi\ako Fujiwara 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections 


Sonia Gandiaga 

Faculty/Collection Assistant. Ichthyology 

Brendan Haley 

Senior Database Manager 

Karsten Hartel 

Curatorial Associate, Ichthyology 

Kathleen Horton 

Faculty/Collection Assistant, 

Amie Jones 

Faculty/Collection Assistant, 

Maureen Kelly 

rr Specialist, Biodiversity Informatics 

Richard Knecht 

Collection Assistant, Invertebrate 

Petra Kubikova 

Faculty/Collection Assistant, 

Laura Leibensperger 

Curatorial Assistant. Invertebrate 

Lisa Litchfield 

Administrator, Concord Field Station 

Mara Lyons 

Faculty/Collection Assistant, 
Im>ertebrate isr Vertebrate Paleontology 

Joseph Martinez 
Curatorial Assistant, Herpetology 

Jessica McConnell 

Collection Assistant. Ichthyology 

Christopher Meehan 
Laboratory Technician, Entomology 

Jessica Mitchell 

Intern, Ernst Mayr Library 

Juri Mivamae 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections 

Paul Morris 

Biodiversity Informatics Manager 

Robert Morris 

IT Specialist, Biodiversity Informatics 

Katherine Mullen 

Library Assistant, Ernst Mayr Library 

April Mullins 

Acquisitions and Technology Specialist, 
Ernst Mayr Library 

Catherine Musinskv 
Faculty /Collection Assistant. 

John Nevins 

Laboratory Systems Manager for 

Biological Oceanography cr Marine 


Somer O'Brien 

Staff Assistant, Concord Field Station 

Mark Omura 

Curatorial Assistant. Mammalogy 

Philip Perkins 

Curatorial Associate, Entomology 

Alison Pirie 

Faculty/Collection Assistant. 
Ornithology (J? Mammalogy 

Pedro Ramirez 

Research Assistant. Concord Field 


Murat Recerik 

Curatorial Assistant. Malacology 

Mark Renczkowski 

Curatorial Assistant, Iiwertebrate 

Constance Rinaldo 
Librarian, Ernst Mayr Library 

Alana Rivera 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections 

Jose Rosado 
Curatorial Associate, Herpetology 

Mary Sears 

Head of Public Services, Ernst Mayr 


Diane Sheridan 
Faculty/Collection Assistant, 
Invertebrate Zoology 

Ingrid Soltero 

Research Technician, Ornithology 

Margaret Starvish 

Faculty /Collection Assistant. Ichthyology 

Robert Stymeist 

Curatorial Assistant. Ornithology 

Christopher Sussman 

Data Assistant. Collections Operations 

Tsuyoshi Takahashi 

Curatorial Assistant, Herpetology & 
Collections Operations 

Jennifer Thomson 
Faculty/Collection Assistant, 
Populations Genetics 

Diana Tingley Turmenne 
Curatorial Assistant, Collections 

Jeremiah Trimble 

Curatorial Associate, Ornithology 

Van Wallaeh 

Curatorial Assistant. Invertebrate 

Catherine Weisel 

Museum Projects Coordinator 

Ken Wilcox 

Building Superintendent. Concord Field 

Victoria Wilke 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections Operations 

Andrew Williston 

Curatorial Assistant, Ichthyology 

Jonathan Woodward 

Curatorial Assistant, Heipetology <s 
Collections Operations 

Melissa Woolley 

Faculty/Collection Assistant, 

Robert Young 

Special Collections Librarian, 
Ernst Mayr Library 

Breda Zimkus 

Project Manager for Genetic Resources 

Harvard Undergraduate Staff 

Sarah Al-Naggar 
Ernst Mayr Library 

Victor Ban 

Ernst Mayr Library 

Ilsoo Cho 

Ernst Mayr Library 

Carry Cohen 
Ernst Mayr Library 

Benjamin Cox 
Ernst Mayr Library 

Zachary Herring 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Tamanna Hossin 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Henry Hubert) 
Ernst Mayr Library 

Olakunle Komolafe 
Ernst Mayr Library 

Lauren Libby 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Caroline Mchugh 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Kimberly O'Donnell 
Ernst Mayr Library 

Encyclopedia of Life, 
Learning + Education Group 

Tracy Barbaro 
Project Coordinator 

Jeffrey T. Holmes 

Digital Learning Editor 

Marie M. Studer 

Learning + Education Project Director 

Administration for the 
Department of Organismic 
and Evolutionary Biology 

Krista Carmichael 

Sponsored Research Administrator 

Rebecca Chetham 

Director of Administration 

Ii v Duinay 
Building Manager 

Paul Dwyei 
Mail Clerk 

Jeannette Everritt 

Administrative Coordinatm 

Jason Green 

Financial Assistant 

Stephanie Hillsgrove 

Financial Assistant 

Philip Norton 

Building Services Coordinator 

Christopher Preheim 
Academic P rogr a ms Coordinate 

Damari Rosado 

Assistant Director of Administration 

Anna Salvato 

Manager of Financial Operations 

Deborah Smile] 
Web Project Manager 

Geoff Tierne\ 

Senior Financial Officer 

Laura Tomaino 

Human Resources Coordinatm 

Angel Velarde 
Financial Assistant 

Ellen Wilkin 
Financial Assistant 

MCZ Faculty 

The MCZ's charter, signed in 
1 859, mandates that the 
Museum's activities will be 
overseen by a governing 
board, the Faculty of the 
Museum of Comparative 

Dr. John D. Constable 
Mr. Robert G. Goelet 
Mr. George Putnam, Jr. 
Mr. George Putnam, III 
Dr. Barbara Jil Wu 
Mr. Paul J. Zofnass 
President Drew Gilpin Faust 


This annual report was produced Its the 
Office of the Directa of the Museum of 
( .iimjxiratn t Zoology. 


James Han ken. Director 
( iatherine Weisel, Museum 
Projects Coordinator 

Copy, Design & Production: 
Cyndi Wood 

( i (Mine Project 

Management, Inc. 

www. creatix'eprojechngmt. com 





Museum of Comparative Zoology 

26 Oxford Street 
Cambridge, MA 02138